College of Humanities
Dean: Nancy McDermid

Department of Philosophy
HUM 388
Chair: Anatole Anton


Professors--Anton, Bach, Glanville, Needleman, Provence, Radcliff, Royse, Silvers, Syfers, Warren

Associate Professor--Harrison


B.A. in Philosophy

B.A. in Philosophy and Religion

Minor in Philosophy

Minor in Philosophy and Religion

M.A. in Philosophy

Certificate in Teaching Critical Thinking

Program Scope

Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy.Philosophy is traditionally defined as the love of wisdom, the ability to think well about the foundations of human action, the nature of reality, and the purposes and priorities of life. The department offers the opportunity for a systematic study of the philosophies of past and present, of East and West, a study that deepens and broadens one's outlook on the world and on human affairs, and thus provides a more secure basis on which to develop one's own philosophy.

The enterprise of philosophy requires sharpening the skills necessary for clarifying premises, uncovering presuppositions (one's own and those of others), weighing the pros and cons of conflicting values, and analyzing concepts and issues. Courses in philosophy are frequently designed in part to help develop or increase these skills, a task that is sometimes more manageable if a restriction of attention is placed to a limited area of thought. Many of the courses therefore concentrate on specific issues. Others are designed to provide an analytic and scholarly overview of an entire area or period. The department welcomes students from other majors or programs who wish to examine their own personal philosophy, investigate the philosophies of others, or sharpen their skills as independent thinkers.

Many of the courses offered are not only appropriate as part of a philosophy major but are of special interest to students in other fields. These courses are designed to help students understand the theoretical frameworks, methodological presuppositions, and more abstract dimensions of major areas of knowledge, from the arts to the sciences. Students interested in either the philosophical understanding of a field, or in philosophy for a personal reason should feel free to consult the department chairperson or an adviser on appropriate courses.

Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy and Religion.The philosophy and religion program has the same general aims as those of the philosophy program given above; in addition, the program is designed to assist students in the exploration of the origin, nature, and structure of the quest for human meaning. This entails the study of the thought and practice of diverse groups, communities, and individuals throughout the ages. Courses emphasize the central importance of reading and analyzing texts, integrating diverse areas of knowledge and experience into wider visions of human community, and developing skills for disciplined self-reflection and contemplation. Majors will gain basic knowledge about diverse religious traditions and develop concentrated knowledge about a chosen special area of interest. The goal of this program is to provide students with the skills and discipline required for a rigorous examination of the issues, experiences, and concerns which arise from religious quests for certainty, community, social justice, and self-understanding.

Graduate Program.The Master of Arts in Philosophy is designed for students wishing to extend their knowledge of, and competence in, philosophy; for students seeking teaching credentials where the master's degree is required; and for students who are planning to do further study elsewhere. The program is wide ranging and flexible, enabling students to concentrate on a number of different areas within philosophy.

A Certificate in Teaching Critical Thinking is available through the Department of Philosophy. The certificate program should be useful to anyone interested in teaching critical thinking courses or incorporating a critical thinking or informal reasoning emphasis in other kinds of courses in elementary, secondary, or post-secondary institutions. The certificate program is open to any post-baccalaureate student. Graduate students in philosophy are invited to complete the program as an adjunct to the M.A. degree. It should be noted that a graduate certificate is not the equivalent of a teaching credential. The certificate attests only to the successful completion of this sixteen unit program.

Career Outlook

A principal reason for the study of philosophy and/or religion is the enrichment of one's own life and understanding. However, the study of philosophy is an excellent preparation for a variety of post-baccalaureate professional studies. These range from law and policy planning through the helping professions to computer science. Philosophy and religion offers preparation for the helping professions, the ministry, and advanced studies in theology. In addition, the broader outlook and the ability to think critically about larger issues that are fostered by the systematic study of philosophy and religion are often highly valued by commercial firms in their management level personnel.


Undergraduate advisers are authorized by the department to designate units obtained in other departments as satisfying unit requirements in philosophy for application to both the philosophy and the philosophy and religion programs. Neither students nor advisers should view this as an escape clause which enables a student who has not quite satisfied the major requirements in philosophy to do so. Units outside the department are to be designated for use in the major on the basis of their contribution to the student's major program. In order to avoid confusion on this point, it is highly recommended that the student obtain written approval from an adviser either immediately before or immediately after obtaining non-department units to be utilized in the major. Decisions of advisers may be appealed to the department as a whole.

Courses for this discipline are listed in alphabetical sequence (consult Index for page reference).

PHIL 110, Critical Thinking, or its equivalent, is required of all students as a prerequisite to the B.A. in Philosophy; students who have not met this requirement may begin the program but must satisfy the requirement at the earliest opportunity. Equivalencies must be approved by a departmental adviser.

The Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy requires a minimum 39-unit major, with at least 30 of these units being upper division. PHIL 320, Philosophical Analysis, should be taken as early as possible.

The program includes nine units of elective courses in philosophy, permitting individualized emphases in specific areas. Students majoring or minoring in philosophy are urged to lay out a tentative program of courses with their advisers early in their tenure at the university. Depending upon the student's area of specialization, up to six units of courses outside the Department of Philosophy may be approved by a department adviser as elective units for the B.A.

The following courses are required of all majors in philosophy, except those taking the emphasis in classics.


Program Requirements

PHIL 205	Formal Logic I		3
PHIL 303	Modern Philosophy		3
PHIL 320	Philosophical Analysis		3
PHIL 450	Ethics		3
PHIL 610	Theory of Knowledge		3
Three units in the history of philosophy from the 
following: 3
PHIL 301	Ancient Philosophy
PHIL 302	Medieval Philosophy
Six units in the core areas of the discipline 
from the following: 6
PHIL 350	Philosophy of Science: The 
Natural Sciences
PHIL 605	Metaphysics
PHIL 620	Philosophy of Mind
PHIL 630	Philosophy of Language
Six units in normative issues from the 
following: 6
PHIL 330	Political Philosophy
PHIL 335	Law and Society
PHIL 380	Philosophy of Law
PHIL 382	Women and Philosophy: 
Selected Topics
PHIL 383	Ethics in Medicine
PHIL 440	Ethics at Work
PHIL 460	Philosophy of Art
PHIL 435	Human Rights in Global Per-

Elective units in philosophy		9
Total		39

Emphasis in Classics

Through cooperation between the Departments of Philosophy and Classics, it is possible for the student to obtain a major in Philosophy with an Emphasis in Classics.


Program Requirements

Latin or Greek		15
Classics courses selected from a number of 
courses dealing with ancient thought and
civilization 9
Philosophy courses selected from a number 
of courses dealing with ancient and
medieval philosophy 12
Units from the following philosophy courses:		9
PHIL 160	Introduction to Philosophy of 
the Arts
PHIL 205	Formal Logic I
PHIL 320	Philosophical Analysis
PHIL 450	Ethics
PHIL 605	Metaphysics

PHIL 610	Theory of Knowledge
Total minimum for this emphasis		45

Emphasis in Philosophy and Law

Required courses

PHIL 205	Formal Logic		3
PHIL 303	Modern Philosophy		3
PHIL 320	Philosophical Analysis		3
PHIL 450	Ethics		3
PHIL 380	Philosophy of Law		3
PHIL 610	Theory of Knowledge		3
Two courses in history selected from the 
following: 6
PHIL 301	Ancient Philosophy
PHIL 302	Medieval Philosophy
PHIL 330	Political Philosophy
Four courses selected from the following:		12-14
PHIL 335	Law and Society
PHIL 375	Peace Law and Human Rights 
in the U.S.
PHIL 435	Human Rights in Global Perspec-
PHIL 455	Sex and the Law
WOMS 534	Women and the Law
PLSI 552	Individual Rights in the Constitu-
tion (4)
SPCH 461	Issues in Free Speech (4)
Two courses selected from the following or 
on advisement: 6-8
AIS 205	American Indians and U.S. Laws
BLS 375	Law and the Black Community
IR 330	World Law (4)
CJ 500	Criminal Law (4)
JOUR 305	Mass Communication Law
LABR 251	Know Your Work Rights
PLSI 561	Jurisprudence (4)
PLSI 553	Legal Issues (4)
SOC 459	Criminal Law and Social 
Process (4)
SOC 457	Sociology of Law (4)
URBS 513	Politics, Law, and the Urban 

	Environment (4)
Total		39-43


The B.A. in Philosophy and Religion requires a minimum of 39 units of which at least 30 must be upper division units.


PHIL 105	Introduction to Philosophy and 
Religion 3
PHIL 500	Philosophy of Religion		3
PHIL 502	World Religions		3
PHIL 525/RELS 300The Nature of Religious 
Experience 3
PHIL 696 	Directed Reading: Philosophy and 
Religion 3
Units selected from the following:		3
PHIL 605	Metaphysics
PHIL 610	Epistemology
Units in history selected from the following:		6
PHIL 301	Ancient Philosophy
PHIL 302	Medieval Philosophy
PHIL 303	Modern Philosophy
PHIL 504	History of Christian Thought
Elective units from the 500's		6
Elective units from related fields on 

advisement		9
Total		39


Each student minoring in philosophy must take at least 21 units in philosophy, at least fifteen (15) of these being upper division units.



Units in philosophy and religion (all courses 
in the 500's) 12
Units in philosophy
Upper division		6

Lower division		3
Total		21


Admission to Program

To enter this program with classified graduate status, students should have completed the following upper division courses: two courses in the history of philosophy chosen from PHIL 301, 302, or 303 (or their equivalents); one course in ethics; PHIL 205, Formal Logic I, or the equivalent; one course in the theory of knowledge or the philosophy of science; and one course in the philosophy of language or philosophy of logic. Those who have not completed these prerequisites may begin the program with the approval of the graduate major adviser in philosophy, but they will be required to make up any deficiencies. A GPA of at least 3.0 is expected for both (1) the last 60 undergraduate units and (2) all philosophy courses. An applicant who does not meet this expectation but shows promise in other respects may be given special consideration for admission.

Applicants must submit a Philosophy Department application, obtained from the department office, as well as the general university application form.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Level One:satisfactory completion of written assignments and examination in PHIL 896. Level Two:satisfactory completion of the master's thesis.

Advancement to Candidacy

Besides meeting all requirements, applicants must in addition have completed with grades of B or better two graduate seminars in philosophy. A Graduate Approved Program should be filed with the Graduate Division when approximately 50 percent of the required course work is completed.

Courses for this discipline are listed in alphabetical sequence (consult Index for page reference). All upper division courses offered by Philosophy may be considered for the master's degree, upon approval of the graduate adviser.



Four graduate seminars in philosophy excluding 
PHIL 777 12
Upper division or graduate units in philos-
ophy or in a related field with the
approval of the graduate major adviser 12
PHIL 896	Directed Reading		3

PHIL 898	Master's Thesis		3
Minimum total		30
andOral Examination in Defense of Thesis (a failed examination may be repeated once)


Admission to the Program

Before being considered for acceptance to this certificate program, the student must first be eligible in accordance with all university requirements as outlined in the Certificate Programs section (consult Index for page reference). This same section also includes university program guidelines and procedures to be followed in filing for the award of the certificate when it is completed.

In addition to the requirements specified in this Bulletinfor admission to graduate study or graduate certificate programs, applicants must have completed:

Students who have not completed these courses may be admitted conditionally. Further information about the program and about equivalent courses may be secured from the program coordinators.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

This university requirement is met by examination in PHIL 777, Seminar in Teaching Critical Thinking.


PHIL 717	Projects in Teaching Philosophy		3
PHIL 777	Seminar in Teaching Critical 
Thinking 3
ENG 419	Advanced Composition for 
Teachers 3
One of the following:		3
PHIL 810	Seminar in Theory of 
PHIL 830	Seminar in Philosophy of 
PHIL 850	Seminar in the Philosophy of 
Units in Applied Philosophy, on advisement		3

PHIL 899	Special Study		1
Total for certificate		16
NOTE:The unit in Special Study is to be taken in conjunction with the course chosen to fulfill the Applied Philosophy requirement; the unit is for the purpose of developing classroom materials on that subject to be used in teaching critical thinking. The Applied Philosophy requirement may be met by PHIL 330, 335, 340, 375, 380, 382, 383, 395, 435, 440, 445, 455, or 460. For other courses, consult a program coordinator.

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