Special Education


College of Education
Dean: Jacob Perea

Department of Special Education
415-338-1161
Chair: Jean van Keulen

Undergraduate Adviser: Stanford Lamb--Communicative Disorders

Graduate Coordinator: Jean van Keulen

Faculty

Professors--Barrager, Casella, Certo, Franklin, Goetz, Goldberg, Hanson, Lamb, Lane, Lepire, Prinz, P., Schuler, Widerstrom

Associate Professors--Flowers, Hunt, Rosen

Assistant Professors--Hsia, Stump, Watanabe

Programs

B.A. in Communicative Disorders

M.S. in Communicative Disorders

Minor in Special Education

M.A. in Special Education

Certificate in Early Childhood Special Education

Certificate in Educational Therapy

Certificate for Integrated Services

Certificate in Rehabilitation Teaching for the Blind

Certificate in Serious Emotional Disturbance

Certificate in Vocational Special Education

Ph.D. in Education: Concentration in Special Education

Ed.D. in Education: Concentration in Special Education

Program Scope and Career Outlook

The programs in the Department of Special Education are designed for students who desire to enter the human services professions. These programs in special education include preparation for specialists who may work in schools or community agencies with children and adults with disabilities. Resources of education, psychology, counseling, and other human service related fields are utilized. Students enrolled in special education may work toward the following goals.

Communicative Disorders

The field of communicative disorders (speech pathology and audiology) is a distinct academic and professional discipline. A master of science qualifies graduates to work as speech-language pathologists or audiologists in hospitals, clinics, rehabilitation agencies, and other settings. Mastery of information in basic communication processes concerns normal development and use of speech, language, and hearing with emphasis in anatomic and physiologic bases; physical bases and processes involved in the production and perception of speech and in hearing; and linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic variables.

Competencies in speech pathology include: mastery of information pertaining to speech and language disorders with emphasis on various types of disorders of communication, their manifestations, classifications, and causes; mastery of evaluation skills, such as procedures, techniques, and instrumentation used to assess speech and language status of children and adults, and the bases of disorders of speech and language; mastery of management procedures used in habilitation and rehabilitation for children and adults with communication disorders.

Competencies in audiology include mastery of information concerned with auditory disorders, such as pathologies of the auditory system, assessment of auditory disorders and their effect upon communication; habilitative and rehabilitative procedures, such as selection and use of appropriate amplification for the hearing impaired, evaluation of speech and language problems of the hearing impaired, management procedures for speech and language habilitation and/or rehabilitation of the deaf/hard of hearing; conservation of hearing, such as environmental noise control, identification audiometry; instrumentation, such as electronics, calibration techniques, characteristics of amplifying systems.

Bachelor of Arts in Communicative Disorders. This program is considered a pre-professional degree and graduate preparation is required for employment as a speech-language pathologist or audiologist. The Clinical-Rehabilitative Services Credential (basic teaching credential not a prerequisite) qualifies students to work as language, speech, and hearing specialists or audiologists in the public schools. Additional preparation will qualify students to teach special classes of severe language impaired/aphasic pupils.

Completion of the appropriate academic/clinical graduate program meets requirements of pre-professional training set forth by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association for the Certificate of Clinical Competence and by the California Board of Medical Quality Assurance for a license in speech pathology/audiology. The Communicative Disorders program is approved by the Educational Services Board of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in both Speech Pathology and Audiology.

Master of Science in Communicative Disorders. The academic and clinical program leading to the M.S. meets requirements of pre-professional training set forth by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association for the Certificate of Clinical Competence and by the California Board of Medical Quality Assurance for a license in speech pathology/audiology. The Communicative Disorders program is approved by the Educational Services Board of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association in both Speech Pathology and Audiology.

Special Education

Minor in Special Education. The purpose of this minor is to provide undergraduate students with an overview of the field of special education. An interdisciplinary program of required and elective courses ensures that students are exposed to a variety of courses pertaining to disability in our society. Competencies attained by students completing this minor would be of both a theoretical and practical nature and would stimulate student interest in occupations serving the disabled. Direct contact with the disabled would help the student to determine whether their interest seems to be a feasible choice for a future career. For further information and office hours of advisers, please contact the Department of Special Education.

Master of Arts in Special Education and Education Specialist Credential. The curriculum for these programs meets state licensing requirements. Course work leading to the education specialist credential is offered in the following areas: Deaf and Hard of Hearing; Physical and Health Disabilities; Blind and Visually Impaired; Mild/Moderate Disabilities; Moderate/Severe Disabilities. The department also offers the Clinical/Rehabilitative Services Credential in both Language, Speech and Hearing Services, and Audiology, and in Orientation and Mobility. See Index for page reference for credential programs. For more information regarding program and course requirements for credentials, prospective students should contact advisers in the appropriate area of special education.

Special Education Certificates

Certificate in Early Childhood Special Education. This program offers an opportunity for students enrolled in professional credential programs or practicing professionals in education to pursue additional training in working with young children with special needs (from birth to five years) and their families. Further, the transdisciplinary approach to this training makes the program equally valuable for related professionals, such as physical and occupational therapists, speech therapists, nurses, psychologists, and social workers. Graduates of the program may hold jobs in a variety of public and private early childhood education settings which include schools, hospitals, and government agencies.

Certificate in Educational Therapy. This program is designed to prepare educators and related professionals to provide educational clinical services in a variety of private settings to include formal clinic programs and private clinical practices when diagnostic and remedial services are provided.

Graduate students pursuing course work leading to the Master of Arts in Special Education will be able to complete concurrently required course work for the certificate. In addition, students possessing M.A. or M.S. degrees can complete the certificate program providing that all prerequisites and requirements are met.

Certificate in Integrated Services. This program is a leadership program designed to prepare participants with specific skills through an interdisciplinary model. Students eligible for participation in the program may come from the fields of health, social work, education, psychology, and related areas. Program graduates provide collaborative services to children and youth with special needs and their families. In partnership with the California Department of Education, the program provides students with competencies to serve local school districts currently involved with schools restructuring and the process of service integration.

Certificate in Rehabilitation Teaching for the Blind. This program offers students opportunities to work with adult blind and visually impaired individuals in a variety of public and private agencies. Curricular components of the program include: techniques and methods of personal and home management; teaching communication skills; issues related to aging and blindness; adult development theories and strategies; utilization of technological devices specifically designed for the visually impaired; and case management techniques in working with persons who are newly blinded and their families.

Certificate in Serious Emotional Disturbance. The certificate and authorization program for special educators working with students with serious emotional disturbance (SED) will prepare personnel to serve this population. This program is designed to provide teachers with the necessary competencies to successfully teach SED students in a variety of settings in close collaboration with families, social workers, community agencies, and relevant others within an interdisciplinary framework. Students will be provided with field-based training, offered concurrently with academic course work, so that theoretical principles and constructs are illustrated through carefully prepared and supervised practicum experiences. Teachers will learn about normal social, affective, and cognitive development; cultural and linguistic differences; and social skill training. Trainees will learn to analyze and modify their own patterns of communication, language use, and non-verbal interaction when interacting with their students, enabling them to indirectly reduce the behavior excesses which have come to define the population of concern. In partnership with the California Department of Education, the program will provide students with competencies to serve local school districts.

Certificate in Vocational Special Education. This program provides educators with further training in how to develop vocational and career education programs for disabled students. Students working toward a teaching credential or master's degree may concurrently enroll in the certificate courses for additional specialized training. Also, students having completed a teaching credential or master's degree may enroll in the certificate program as an advanced graduate. The program provides classroom and hands-on training for educators who will teach students with a variety of disabilities. The methods and curriculum of the courses focus on career education, secondary vocational training, transition from youth to adulthood, and supported work.

Joint Doctorate in Education with Concentration in Special Education. Graduate study leading to the Joint Doctorate (Doctor of Education or Doctor of Philosophy) in Education with Concentration in Special Education is also offered. This program is offered jointly with the University of California, Berkeley. The program provides preparation for people interested in a leadership role in curriculum development, administration and supervision, teacher education, and research.

BACHELOR OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS

Upon acceptance into the program, undergraduate students are assigned an adviser. All students must see their advisers before registration.

These courses constitute the specific requirements for a liberal arts major in communicative disorders leading to the baccalaureate degree at this university. This is not a terminal degree for professional employment. Students interested in this program only for the purpose of obtaining a credential should refer to the program of specialized preparation and consult an adviser in Communicative Disorders. The undergraduate sequence or a program equivalence is prerequisite to the Master of Science in Communicative Disorders.

Courses for this program are listed in alphabetical sequence (consult Index for page reference).

										Units
C D 650		Communication Disorders I					3
C D 651		Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech Mechanism			3
C D 652		Audiology							3
C D 653		Aural Rehabilitation						3
C D 654		Audiometry							3
C D 655		Dynamics of Communication Development				3
C D 656		Diagnosis of Communicative Disorders				3
C D 659		Articulatory and Phonological Disorders				3
C D 660		Communicative Disorders II					3
C D 661		Neurolinguistics						3
C D 663		Clinical Instrumentation in Communicative Disorders		3
C D 668		Clinical Observation						3
SPCH 410	American Phonetics						4

Total										40

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN COMMUNICATIVE DISORDERS

Applicants must have completed 24 semester hours in communicative disorders, psychology, speech, and/or other related course work or experience prior to admission to the program.

Admission to Program

Students desiring to enter graduate level programs in Special Education must complete a department application and apply to the university, if not already enrolled. The department application requests background information, transcripts, and three letters of reference. A minimum of a 2.5 GPA is required for credentials, and a 3.0 GPA is required for master's degrees. See specialization areas for unique admission criteria.

Selection will be based on the following:

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Level One: graduate candidates must submit evidence that they have passed the GET (Graduate Essay Test). This examination is offered at the immediate start-up of each semester. New students are expected to take the examination their first semester. If the student fails, he/she may take the examination a second time or enroll in a remedial course, EDUC 614. If students elect not to take the course until they have attempted to pass the examination a second time, it is their choice. However, students who have failed the GET twice must enroll in the remedial course to fulfill the requirement. Completion of this course constitutes completion of the requirement. This course is not a substitute for the GET unless the student has failed the test at least once. Level Two: is measured by successful completion of the master's written comprehensive examination. Satisfactory completion automatically certifies that the second level writing requirement has been met.

Courses for this discipline are listed in alphabetical sequence (consult Index for page reference). When accepted into the program, students are assigned an adviser.

Program

									Units
ISED 797	Seminar in Educational Research				3
CD 880		Advanced Communication Therapy				2

One of the following areas of emphasis:					12
Speech Pathology
CD 701		Seminar in Language Disorders in Children
CD 705		Seminar in Problems of Stuttering
CD 708		Seminar in Neurogenic Disorders of Speech and Language
CD 709		Seminar in Voice Disorders
Audiology
CD 757		Speech Audiometry and Hearing Aids
CD 702		Seminar: Advanced Audiology I
CD 703		Seminar: Advanced Audiology II
CD 704		Seminar: Advanced Audiology III
Speech Science
SPCH 661	Experimental Methods in Communication Research (4)
SPCH 710	Seminar in Physiological and Perceptual Phonetics (4)
Four units on advisement

One of the following plans:						6
Plan A
CD 882	Internship in Communicative Disorders (6)
Plan B61
SPED 898	Master's Thesis and
CD 882	Internship in Communicative Disorders
Plan C61
SPED 895	Field Study and
CD 882		Internship in Communicative Disorders
Plan D
Completion of V.A. Internship, CD 880, and
Additional graduate units on advisement (6)

Upper division or graduate courses in major or related fields with approval of grad-
uate major adviser (suggested courses listed below)			7
CD 700		Human Auditory Systems
CD 706		Counseling in Communicative Disorders
CD 707		Therapeutic Techniques for Severe Language Disabilities
CD 756		Advanced Diagnosis of Communicative Disabilities
CD 883		Practicum in Hearing Diagnostics (2)
CD 884		Advanced Diagnosis in Communicative Disorders (2)
SPED 682	Signing Exact English I
SPED 688	American Sign Language I
SPED 782	Language Assessment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children
SPED 783	Speech for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children

Minimum total								30
and Master's Comprehensive Written Examination (see department for limitations on repeat of failed examination or portions thereof)

MINOR IN SPECIAL EDUCATION

Required Courses

									Units
PSY 200		General Psychology					3
C D 300		Human Communicative Development and Disorders		3
PSY 431		Developmental Psychology				3
SPED 330	Introduction to Disability				3

Elective courses

To be selected from among the following, or other
electives upon advisement:						5-6
KIN 536		Movement Activities for Special Groups
KIN 620-621	Advanced Practicum in Physical Education Activities62 (2 each)
SPED 370	Introduction to Atypical Infants
SPED 682	Signing Exact English I
PSY 435		Behavior Problems of Children

Total for the minor							17-18

MASTER OF ARTS IN SPECIAL EDUCATION

Graduate Advisers--All tenured/tenure-track faculty serve as graduate advisers with a coordinator assigned to each program area as follows: C. Stump, Mild/Moderate Disabilities; L. Goetz, Moderate/Severe Disabilities; S. Rosen, Blind and Visually Impaired, and Orientation and Mobility; G. Soto, Physical and Health Disabilities; B. Franklin, Deaf and Hard of Hearing; S. Lamb, Communicative Disorders; P.M. Prinz and V. Casella, Joint Doctoral Program; M. Hanson, Early Childhood Special Education; and N. Certo, Vocational Special Education.

Admission to Program

Students desiring to enter graduate level programs in Special Education must complete a department application and apply to the university, if not already enrolled. The department application requests background information, transcripts, and three letters of reference. A minimum of a 2.5 GPA is required for credentials, and a 3.0 GPA is required for master's degrees.

Upon acceptance into the program, students are assigned an adviser. All students must see their advisers before registration.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Level One: graduate candidates must submit evidence that they have passed the GET (Graduate Essay Test). This examination is offered at the immediate start-up of each semester. New students are expected to take the examination their first semester. If the student fails, s/he may take the examination a second time or enroll in a remedial course, EDUC 614. If students elect not to take the course until they have attempted to pass the examination a second time, it is their choice. However, students who have failed the GET twice must enroll in the remedial course to fulfill the requirement. Completion of this course constitutes completion of the requirement. This course is not a substitute for the GET unless the student has failed the test at least once. Level Two: is measured by successful completion of the master's written comprehensive examination or completion of a field study or a thesis. Satisfactory completion automatically certifies that the second level writing requirement has been met.

Courses for this discipline are listed in alphabetical sequence (consult Index for page reference). Upper division courses offered by the department may be considered upon approval of the graduate adviser.

Program

									Units
ISED 797	Seminar in Educational Research				3
SPED 788	Public Policy and Legal Rights of People
		with Disability						3
One of the following selected on advisement				3
SPED 801	Diversity in Special Education: Family Systems, Resources, and Culture
SPED 779	Family Systems and Services for Young Disabled Children
Upper division or graduate courses in special education, as required by each graduate 
program									12
Related studies (selected upon approval of graduate major adviser in specialization 
emphasis)								6
One of the following options (by advisement and approval of major graduate adviser 
in specialization emphasis):						3-6

Option I:63 								3
SPED 895	Field Study or
SPED 898	Master's Thesis and Oral Defense of Thesis
Option II:								3
SPED 881	Advanced Research Seminar in Special Education and
Master's Comprehensive Written Examination

Option III:								6
Two elective graduate seminars which will reflect critical analysis of litera-
ture and application of research skills (by advisement and approval of gradu-
ate major adviser) and
Master's Comprehensive Written Examination

Minimum total										30-33

CERTIFICATE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION

Admission to the Program

To be admitted students must meet the standards required for candidates for a master's degree program in Special Education. To apply students must hold a 2.5 minimum grade point average and submit three letters of recommendation, transcripts of all college or university level training, and a position statement documenting why they are pursuing this certificate. Further, students must have successfully completed SPED 701, Survey of People with Disabilities in Education, to enroll in the certificate courses.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Students must meet the English proficiency requirement by demonstrating competency on a written paper or examination.

Program

									Units
SPED 777	Atypical Infant Development				3
SPED 737	Infant Intervention or
SPED 738	Preschool Intervention					3
SPED 780	Assessment and Program Evaluation in Early Childhood Special 
		Education						3
SPED 831	Internship in Early Childhood Special Education		3

Minimum total								12

CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATIONAL THERAPY

Before being considered for acceptance to this certificate program, the student must first be eligible in accordance with all university requirements as outlined in the Certificate Programs section of this Bulletin (consult Index for page reference). This same section includes university program guidelines and procedures to be followed in filing for the award of the certificate when it is completed.

Admission to Program

The specific requirements and procedures for acceptance to the certificate program in Educational Therapy are as follows.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

The student is expected to satisfy the graduate level English proficiency requirement through evaluation of written assignments in MGMT 851.

Completion of the Program

Prerequisites

As evidenced in SFSU transcript or approved equivalencies verified by a transcript.

SPED 715	Utilizing Computers with Special Learners or
	SPED 716	Technology in Special Education
SPED 772	Methods 1: Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction for Mild/Moderate Disabilities
SPED 774	Behavior Management
SPED 775	Methods 2: Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction for Mild/Moderate Disabilities
SPED 778	Methods 3: Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction for Mild/Moderate Disabilities
ISED 797	Seminar in Educational Research

Requirements

									Units
SPED 709	Advanced Differential Diagnosis				3
MGMT 851	Entrepreneurial Management				3
SPED 806	Seminar in Field Practices64				3

Minimum total								9

CERTIFICATE FOR INTEGRATED SERVICES

Admission to Program

For admission to the certificate program in Integrated Services, the following prerequisites and requirements must be met.

Course Requirement

										Units
SPED 788	Public Policy and Legal Rights of People with Disability or
SPED 902	 Public Policy in Special Education (on advisement only)	3
SPED 801	Diversity in Special Education: Family, Resources, and Culture	3
EDUC/BSS 803	Integrated and Collaborative Services for Children		3
SPED 821	Advanced Problems in Special Education (practicum modules)	3
SPED 831	Internship in Special Education					3
SPED 711	Student Support Seminar (2) [repeated second semester]		4

Total for certificate								19

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Those students pursuing a master's degree concurrently must meet this requirement by conforming to the regulations for the Level One Literacy Requirement, as described by their respective graduate degree department. Students who already possess a master's degree will meet the requirement through writing assignments in the seminar, EDUC/BSS 803.

Completion Requirements

Students not possessing a credential or master's degree must complete a credential or a master's degree program concurrently with the award of this certificate. As per university requirements, two-thirds of the program units must be completed in residence.

CERTIFICATE IN REHABILITATION TEACHING FOR THE BLIND

Admission to Program

Admission to the certificate program follows standards required for a graduate degree. Applicants must hold a minimum of a 2.5 grade point average in an undergraduate degree from an accredited university, and submit three letters of recommendation and transcripts along with the departmental application. Program faculty interview candidates to determine if the program is suitable to meet the applicant's career objectives. Check with program advisers for courses required for a Master of Arts in Special Education with an emphasis in Rehabilitation Teaching for the Blind.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Students must meet the English proficiency requirement by demonstrating competence through a written examination during the first semester of enrollment and the completion of a written paper.

Program

									Units
SPED 601	Observation and Participation in Special Education	3
SPED 732	Adaptive Skills for People with Visual Impairment	3
SPED 733	Seminar: Rehabilitation Teaching for People with
		Visual Impairment					3
SPED 735	Computer Technology for Visual Impairment		3
SPED 749	Educational and Medical Implications of
		Visual Disability					3
SPED 750	Survey of Education of Students with Visual Impairment	2
SPED 752	Social and Psychological Implications of
		Visual Impairment					3
SPED 754	Communication Skills for Visually Impaired: Research
		and Methodology						3
SPED 755	Basic Orientation and Mobility for People with
		Visual Impairment					3
SPED 831	Internship in Special Education				6
ISED 606	Principles of Adult Education				4

Minimum total								36

CERTIFICATE IN SERIOUS EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE

Admission Requirements

The following prerequisites and requirements must be met.

Curriculum

Students must have completed or be enrolled in either the Learning Handicapped (LH) or Severely Handicapped (SH) Specialist Credential program, or a Master of Arts in Special Education.

									Units
SPED 601	Observation and Participation in Special Education	1
SPED 711	Student Support Seminar					2
SPED 781	Education of Students with Serious Emotional/
		Behavior Disorders					3
SPED 824	Advanced Behavioral and Instructional Techniques	3

Total units								9

Completion Requirements

Students not possessing a credential in LH or SH must complete a credentialing program concurrently with the award of this certificate. As per university requirements, two-thirds of the program units must be completed in residence.

CERTIFICATE IN VOCATIONAL SPECIAL EDUCATION

Admission Requirements

The student must have a bachelor's degree and either possess or be enrolled in a program that grants a credential or master's degree. The general requirements for admission to the graduate school at SFSU will apply. Students must have a GPA which allows them to be admitted to the university as a graduate student. Three professional references are required and transcripts of previous course work must be submitted. A prerequisite to the certificate program is SPED 701, Survey of People with Disabilities.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Students must meet the English proficiency requirement by demonstrating competence through a written examination during the first semester of enrollment and the completion of a written paper.

									Units
SPED 715	Utilizing Computers with Special Learners		3
SPED 761	Career Education for Students with Mild/ModerateDisabilities or
SPED 763	Method of Instruction in Secondary Programs with
		Severely Disabled Students				3
SPED 805	Internship: Vocational Education for Special Needs
		Students						3
SPED 850	Issues in Vocational Special Education			3

Total units								12

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATION: CONCENTRATION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION AND DOCTOR OF EDUCATION IN EDUCATION: CONCENTRATION IN SPECIAL EDUCATION

Administrative Organization

The Joint Doctoral Program in Special Education is a program within the Colleges of Education of two campuses, San Francisco State University and the University of California, Berkeley. The program Executive Committee is composed of faculty members from both campuses. The committee is co-chaired by coordinators from each campus. Student performance and competencies are required to meet the scholarly requirements of the Graduate Divisions of both institutions.

Members of the faculty from SFSU are primarily from the Department of Special Education, which represents multiple areas relating to people with disabilities, and from Communicative Disorders. Faculty from departments such as Psychology, Sociology, Social Work, Ethnic Studies, and English are also available to work with doctoral students. The majority of the Berkeley faculty come from the Graduate School of Education and includes faculty from each of the major divisions (Social and Cultural Studies; Educational Administration; Educational Psychology; Language and Literacy; Mathematics, Science, and Technology). In addition, faculty from several associated fields such as psychology, linguistics, public health, optometry, anthropology, public policy, social welfare, and social and behavioral sciences also participate in the program.

Admission Requirements

In addition to the possession of a bachelor's degree, major factors used in selection of candidates include the undergraduate and/or graduate grade point averages, scores on the Graduate Record Examination, a sample of professional writing, a statement of purpose, three letters of recommendation, and a personal interview. Applicants who have not taken the Graduate Record Examination should make arrangements to take the test prior to or at the time of application. Scores should be reported to both institutions. Previous professional experience in working with people with disabilities and course work in special education is highly desirable. Students are admitted at the beginning of the Fall semester each year. The application deadline for admission is January 2 of the same year.

Program Requirements

Basic requirements for all students include work in statistics and research methodology, professional seminars concerning public policy and research pertaining to disabilities, and an advanced graduate course in learning and development. All students are required to complete the following general core courses.

Core--SFSU Courses

										Units
SPED 902	Seminar in Public Policy					3
SPED 903	Research in Special Education: Program Design and Analysis	3
SPED 904	Small Sample and Observational Research Methods			3
SPED 907	Learning and Development: Influence on Disabilities		3

Total										12

Core--UCB Courses

Courses cover cognitive development and data analysis				8

Total										8

Atypical Developmental Psycholinguistics Emphasis

The joint doctoral emphasis in Atypical Developmental Psycholinguistics (ADP) relates the study of language behavior, its development and use by children and adolescents to atypical development and exceptionality, with particular emphasis on linguistic and cognitive differences and their social, psychological, and neurological correlates. The program emphasis covers the relationship between language and literacy and the study of language development across various modalities: spoken, signed, and written and includes information on American Sign Language (ASL) as well as alternative/augmentative communication. Students select between two specialization strands within this emphasis: Strand 1 involves research and course work on language acquisition as related to cognitive, linguistic, and/or motoric impairment and focuses on language and literacy development in specific atypical populations (i.e., autistic and severely emotionally disturbed, specific language impaired, language/learning disabled, severely/multiply handicapped). Strand 2 of the emphasis covers the study of deafness, especially as it relates to the psycholinguistic aspects of American Sign Language (ASL), literacy, and sign language acquisition with deaf children and adolescents. The social and cultural contexts of communicative interactions and their implications for language and literacy acquisition, assessment and intervention are a central focus of both interdisciplinary specialization strands.

Program

										Units
Core courses (see above)							20

Emphasis Core

Strands 1 and 2--UCB Courses
Proseminar in Language Acquisition						3
Proseminar in Second Language Acquisition, Literacy, or Discourse Analysis	3
Core--SFSU Course
SPED 921	Seminar: Issues in Atypical Language Acquisition		3
Strand 1 Core Course
SPED 922	Research Design and Methodologies: Atypical Developmental
		Psycholinguistics						3
Strand 2 Prerequisite Courses
The equivalent of:
SPED 688	American Sign Language (ASL) I					3
SPED 689	American Sign Language (ASL) II					3
SPED 690	American Sign Language (ASL) III				3
Strand 2 Core Course
SPED 923	Linguistic Basis of American Sign Language (ASL) and Sign Language 
		Acquisition in Deaf Children					3

The major objective of the first year is to help the student achieve competence in developing and implementing a research project and to critically review and interpret professional literature. In addition to the general core courses, all students are required to select three areas of emphasis or specialization. A minimum of three courses (nine units) is required in each area of emphasis. At least one of the three areas of study must be completed on the opposite campus.

Beyond the basic courses, the program is individually designed to meet the student's interests and needs. The student works with faculty on both campuses in designing an acceptable program which meets the graduate requirements on both campuses.

Normative Time for Program. The normative time for completion of the doctoral degree is six years; however, most students average four to five years to completion. Two years of full-time residence is required. Enrollment alternates on a year-to-year basis between the two campuses each year. Payment of fees on one campus permits the student to take work and utilize the facilities of the other campus at no additional charge. Students may elect courses from any department or college on either campus.

Prequalifying Review. The prequalifying review for the doctoral degree consists of the approval of two to three position papers and a dissertation prospectus.

Qualifying Review. The Qualifying Examination is an oral examination of two to three hours duration. The oral examination committee is comprised of three members from each campus. One member from each university must be outside the College of Education. Members of the oral examination committee are selected by the student in consultation with the primary adviser. The chairperson of the committee may come from either campus. The passing of the oral examination is prerequisite to advancement to candidacy.

Advancement to Candidacy. Following successful completion of the Qualifying Examination, the student advances to candidacy and submits a dissertation proposal. Students should advance to candidacy by the end of the semester following the completion of the Qualifying Examination. The Dissertation Committee is comprised of at least three faculty members representing both campuses. One member must be outside the College of Education. The student selects the committee members and requests one individual to serve as chairperson. The approval of the dissertation proposal and completion of the dissertation results in the award of a doctoral degree.



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