Biology


College of Science and Engineering
Dean: James C. Kelley

Department of Biology
HH 534
415-338-1548
Chair: John Hafernik

Graduate Coordinators:
Cell and Molecular Biology/Microbiology--E. Perara
Conservation Biology/Ecology and Systematic Biology--D. Desjardin
Marine Biology--T. Niesen
Physiology and Behavioral Biology--A. Arp

Faculty

Professors--Antipa, Araki, Auleb, Arp, Barnes, Bayliss, Bernstein, Breckler, Carnal, Catena, Goldman, Goldstein, Hafernik, Josselyn, Kenyon, Kuby, Larson, Markowitz, Morelli, Niesen, Parker, Patterson, Pauling, Randall, Rothman, Stubbs, Williams

Associate Professors--Davis, Desjardin, Fiedler, Smith, Whalen

Assistant Professors--Marquez-Magana, Perara, Ramirez, Routman

Adjunct Faculty--Bailey, Berka, Drewes, Baptista, Ferrari, Greenleaf, Jameson, Kline, Kushner, Lee, Lenarz, Leviton, Lowenstein, McCosker, Orrego, Pamatmat, Parenti, Ralston, Schmidt, Smith, Ward

Programs

B.A. in Biology, General

B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Botany

B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Cell and Molecular Biology

B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Ecology

B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Marine Biology and Limnology

B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Microbiology

B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Physiology

B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Zoology

B.S. in Clinical Science

Minor in Biology

Certificate in Biotechnology

M.A. in Biology, General

M.A. in Biology: Concentration in Cell and Molecular Biology

M.A. in Biology: Concentration in Conservation Biology

M.A. in Biology: Concentration in Ecology and Systematic Biology

M.A. in Biology: Concentration in Marine Biology

M.A. in Biology: Concentration in Microbiology

M.A. in Biology: Concentration in Physiology and Behavioral Biology

Certificate in Genetic Engineering

Program Scope

The Department of Biology provides a broad range of programs to meet student needs. Course work ranges from introductory biology to specialized courses in subdisciplines of modern biology. The department has grouped courses into "concentrations" to help advise students of appropriate programs of study for various biology subdisciplines. The intent of these concentrations is to provide breadth of background in basic biological concepts as well as depth in the discipline of choice. Students should consult with an adviser to design an individualized program of study within the concentration of interest. Lists of advisers for each concentration are available from the Biology departmental office.

The B.S. in Clinical Science provides a strong background for students interested in medical technology. The program cooperates with the Center for Biomedical Laboratory Science which sponsors the Master of Science in Biomedical Laboratory Science and advanced post-baccalaureate course work and training for clinical laboratory scientist trainees.

The department also sponsors the Master of Arts in Biology. This graduate degree program builds upon the baccalaureate degree programs through one of two alternatives. Alternate 1 requires research and a written thesis; Alternate 1 is required to complete a master's degree with a concentration; i.e., cell and molecular biology; ecology and systematic biology; marine biology; microbiology; or physiology and behavioral biology. Alternate 2 includes research and examinations and may be selected by students earning the M.A. in General Biology. Both require a minimum of 30 units and one year of full-time study. The master's degree provides educational depth and training, giving the student a sound foundation for employment or for study in doctoral programs.

A cooperative doctoral program with the University of California, Davis and the University of California, San Francisco allows for provisional admission to one of nineteen Ph.D. programs at the University of California, Davis or one of thirteen Ph.D. programs at the University of California, San Francisco. The program is designed to increase the numbers of underrepresented minorities and women in a range of areas in biology and chemistry. Contact the graduate adviser for the master's degree program of interest.

Career Outlook

The Bachelor of Science in Biology leads to professional careers in biology including (1) laboratory and field work in applied biology such as that conducted at many civil service agencies and research organizations; (2) teaching at secondary and college levels; and (3) research positions or management positions in government agencies, academic institutions, and industry. Graduate work is commonly required for professional work in biology and the Bachelor of Science in Biology is designed to prepare students for graduate work in biology. Students may elect a curriculum in general biology designed to give breadth of background or they may choose one of the curricular concentrations offered.

The rapid maturation of recombinant biology has resulted in the need for highly skilled and specially trained individuals to produce and recover the products of genetic engineering. The San Francisco Bay Area is the major center in the world for this technology. Many employment opportunities exist for individuals who have earned the Certificate in Biotechnology and/or Genetic Engineering.

UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS IN BIOLOGY

General Information

All major course work must be completed with letter grades (CR/NC is not acceptable) and a minimum grade point average of 2.0 in all upper division course work applicable to the major. Students who are pursuing the Bachelor of Science program must earn a grade of "C-" or better in all prerequisite courses and be prepared to provide copies of transcripts demonstrating completion of prerequisites. Candidates entering the Bachelor of Science programs should have completed three years of high school mathematics and a year of high school chemistry to allow completion of the curriculum in normal time. At least twelve upper division units in biology must be completed at this university. Early in the beginning semester, and at regular intervals thereafter, students must consult with an adviser to plan a program of study. A list of biology advisers is available in the Biology Department, HH 534.

The department does not permit multiple concentrations within the Biology degree program. All of the curricula require preliminary work in physics and chemistry because many important biological concepts are based squarely upon principles in the physical sciences. Also, each curriculum includes upper division work in the most fundamental and well-developed segments of biological knowledge so that students who select a concentration also are assured of receiving background of reasonable breadth. Because of the sequential arrangement of courses that is intrinsic to any science curriculum, students are urged to consult descriptions for the prerequisites of courses in which they expect to enroll. Students planning professional careers in biology should become proficient in mathematics through calculus and in English; those planning to study for a doctoral degree must expect to be proficient in one or more foreign languages.

The Department of Biology is formally affiliated with the California Academy of Sciences. Several members of the academy staff hold joint appointments at the university and offer courses within the department. The facilities and collections of the academy are available for selected students pursuing research in the biological sciences. The Sierra Nevada Field Campus near Sierra City and the Romberg Tiburon Centers in Marin County, components of the university, and the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories operated by a consortium of the California State University are also accessible for class and research use.

Courses for these programs are listed in alphabetical sequence (consult Index for page references).

BACHELOR OF ARTS IN GENERAL BIOLOGY

The curriculum in general biology provides breadth of exposure to fundamental areas of biology. Since basic principles of physical science are central to many biological concepts, course work in physics and chemistry is included in the lower division requirements. This curriculum when supplemented with two Geoscience courses satisfies the requirements for a major program in Life Sciences leading to a Single Subjects Credential. Students who are considering teaching life sciences should see a credential adviser in the Biology Department before planning the major. Specific courses and a competency assessment are required for admission to the credential program.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (29 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I				5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II				5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I				5
CHEM 113	General Chemistry II (CHEM 114 is recommended)	3
CHEM 130	General Organic Chemistry			3
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1)		4
PHYS 121/122	General Physics II and Laboratory (3/1)		4
Total lower division requirements				29

Upper Division Requirements (28 units)

Students must see an adviser in order to work 
out a suitable program from choices given below.
BIOL 355	Genetics					3
BIOL 337	Evolution					3

One laboratory course from the following:			5
BIOL 525/526	 Plant Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 612/613	 Human Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 630/631	 Animal Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)

One course from the following:					3-5
BIOL 343	Principles of Immunology
BIOL 350	Cell Biology
BIOL 401/402	General Microbiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 450	Biology of the Protozoa
CHEM 349	General Biochemistry

One field course from the following:				3-4
BIOL 313	Principles of Ecology
BIOL 482	Animal Ecology (4)
BIOL 529	Plant Ecology (4)
BIOL 580	Limnology
BIOL 585	Marine Ecology (4)

One laboratory course from the following:			3-5
BIOL 328	Human Anatomy (4)
BIOL 380	Embryology (4)
BIOL 453/454	General Parasitology and Laboratory (3/1)
BIOL 460	General Entomology (4)
BIOL 461	Insect Taxonomy
BIOL 470	Natural History of the Vertebrates (4)
BIOL 475	Herpetology
BIOL 478	Ornithology
BIOL 480	Mammalogy (4)
BIOL 492	Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (4)
BIOL 500	Comparative Morphology of Non-Vascular Plants (4)
BIOL 502	Biology of the Algae (4)
BIOL 504	Biology of the Fungi (4)
BIOL 505	Comparative Anatomy of Vascular Plants (4)
BIOL 514	Plant Taxonomy (5)
BIOL 555	Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
BIOL 570	Biology of Fishes (4)
Upper division electives selected in consultation
with an adviser:						3-8
Total upper division requirements				28
Total for major							57

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN BOTANY

The program provides opportunities for study in ecological, systematic and taxonomic, physiological, morphological, and anatomical aspects of botany. Course work in an array of plant groups is offered, including vascular plants, algae, fungi, mosses, and lichens. Where applicable, field work in courses is emphasized, including instruction at the Sierra Nevada Field Campus and at the Romberg Tiburon Centers.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all Biology students.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (34 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I					5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II					5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I					5
CHEM 113/114	General Chemistry II and Laboratory (3/2)		5
CHEM 130	General Organic Chemistry				3
MATH 220	Calculus and Analytic Geometry I or
CSC 210		Introduction to Computer Programming			3
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1)			4
PHYS 121/122	General Physics II and Laboratory (3/1)			4
Total lower division requirements					34

Upper Division Requirements (33 units)

BIOL 355	Genetics						3
BIOL 458	Biometry						4
BIOL 525-526	Plant Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)			5
BIOL 529	Plant Ecology						4

One course from each of the following cate-
gories (students should select courses 
to include coverage of both vascular and 
non-vascular plants):

Taxonomy								4-5
BIOL 502	Biology of the Algae (4)
BIOL 504	Biology of the Fungi (4)
BIOL 514	Plant Taxonomy (5)

Evolution									4
BIOL 500	Comparative Morphology of the Non-Vascular Plants (4)
BIOL 505	Comparative Anatomy of Vascular Plants (4)
Upper division electives selected in consultation with a botany adviser		8-10
Total upper division requirements						33
Total for major									67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Fundamental course work in allied sciences and mathematics prepares the student for advanced studies in cell and molecular biology. The program is also recommended for pre-medical students because it includes many of the courses required for admission to medical school. (For Pre-Health Professions curricula, consult Index.)

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all Biology students.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (34 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I					5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II					5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I					5
CHEM 113/114	 General Chemistry II and Laboratory (3/2)		5
MATH 220	Calculus and Analytic Geometry I			3

One course selected from the following:					3-4
MATH 124	Elementary Statistics
MATH 221	Calculus and Analytic Geometry II
MATH 222	Calculus and Analytic Geometry III10
CSC 210	Introduction to Computer Programming
BIOL 458	Biometry (4)
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1)			4
PHYS 121/122	General Physics II and Laboratory (3/1)			4
Total lower division requirements					34

Upper Division Requirements (36 units)

BIOL 350	Cell Biology						3
BIOL 351	Experiments in Cell Biology and Genetics		4
BIOL 355	Genetics						3
BIOL 357	Molecular Genetics					3
BIOL 382	Developmental Biology					
CHEM 333/335	 Organic Chemistry I and Organic Chemistry II (3/3)	6
CHEM 340/341	 Biochemistry I and II (3/3)				6
Electives to include one course from each group 
below. Include one laboratory course.					8
Group A:
BIOL 380	 Embryology (4)
BIOL 401/402	 General Microbiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 450	 Biology of the Protozoa
BIOL 525/526	 Plant Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 612/613	 Human Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 614	 Vertebrate Histology (4)
BIOL 630/631	 Animal Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
Group B:
BIOL 343	 Cellular and Molecular Immunology
BIOL 358	 Microbial Genetics Laboratory
BIOL 361	 Human Genetics
BIOL 391	 Microscopy and Photomicrography (2)
BIOL 420/421	 General Virology andLaboratory (2/2)
BIOL 442/443	 Microbial Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 620	 Endocrinology
CHEM 300	 General Physical Chemistry I (2) 10 or
CHEM 351	 Physical Chemistry I
CHEM 343	 Biochemistry Laboratory
Three to four units of credit in graduate courses 
numbered BIOL 715-745, which accept 
qualified seniors, may be substituted with the adviser's approval.

Total upper division requirements					36
Total for major								70

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN ECOLOGY

This program offers a flexible but rigorous plan of study in the plant and animal sciences for students interested in ecology, natural history, conservation, and population biology; students interested in entomology, botany, or zoology may also find this concentration appropriate. The program stresses firm foundations in ecological theory, ecological technique, and natural history.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all Biology students.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (34 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I						5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II						5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I						5
CHEM 113/114	 General Chemistry II and Laboratory (3/2)			5
CHEM 130	General Organic Chemistry					3
MATH 220	Calculus and Analytic Geometry I or
CSC 210	Introduction to Computer Programming					3
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1)				4
PHYS 121/122	General Physics II and Laboratory (3/1)				4
Total lower division requirements						34

Upper Division Requirements (33 units)
BIOL 355	Genetics							3
BIOL 458	Biometry							4

Physiology course with laboratory on advisement:				5
BIOL 525/526	 Plant Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 630/631	 Animal Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)

Any two of the following ecology courses					8
BIOL 482	Animal Ecology (4)
BIOL 529	Plant Ecology (4)
BIOL 585	Marine Ecology (4)

Upon advisement, electives from the alternates 
not used in fulfilling the requirements 
listed above or from the following:						13

Evolutionary Biology

BIOL 337		Evolution

Systematic Biology

BIOL 450		Biology of the Protozoa
BIOL 460	General Entomology (4)
BIOL 461	Insect Taxonomy
BIOL 470	Vertebrate Natural History (4)
BIOL 475	Herpetology
BIOL 478	Ornithology
BIOL 480	Mammalogy (4)
BIOL 502	Biology of the Algae
BIOL 504	Biology of the Fungi (4)
BIOL 514	Plant Taxonomy (5)
BIOL 555	Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
BIOL 570	Biology of Fishes (4)

Applied Biology

BIOL 411	Environmental and Industrial Microbiology (4)
BIOL 453/454	General Parasitology and Laboratory (3/1)
BIOL 464	Medical Entomology
BIOL 575	Fisheries Biology

General Biology
BIOL 315	Field Studies in Biology (1-3)
BIOL 350	Cell Biology
BIOL 401	General Microbiology
BIOL 466	Preparation for Field Studies in Entomology (1)
BIOL 467	Field Studies in Entomology (1-3)
BIOL 470	Natural History of the Vertebrates (4)
BIOL 492	Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (4)
BIOL 525	Plant Physiology
BIOL 530	Conservation Biology
BIOL 556	Natural History of Marine Invertebrates (4)
BIOL 580	Limnology
BIOL 582	Biological Oceanography
BIOL 600	General Animal Behavior (4)
BIOL 630	Animal Physiology
BIOL 699	Special Study in Biology (1-3)

The following graduate courses are available
to Biology majors with concentration in Ecology and senior standing
BIOL 820	Ecology of Estuaries and Lagoons
BIOL 821	Fire Ecology
BIOL 823	Island Life
BIOL 825	Analytical Biogeography
BIOL 840	Community Ecology
BIOL 843	Population Biology
BIOL 845	Ecological Methods
BIOL 862	Advances in Ecology and Systematic Biology (2)
BIOL 882	Seminar: Ecology and Systematic	Biology (1)

Total upper division requirements		33
Total for major		67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN MARINE BIOLOGY AND LIMNOLOGY

Undergraduates may elect a general emphasis in marine invertebrate zoology, marine vertebrate zoology, marine botany, marine microbiology, or limnology. Graduate work may also be general or follow specific strengths such as ecology, systematics, functional morphology, physiology, ethology, estuarine, or freshwater biology. The curriculum and facilities of San Francisco State University are strongly supported by the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and the Romberg Tiburon Centers (consult Index for page references).

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all Biology students.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (37 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I						5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II						5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I						5
CHEM 113/114	 General Chemistry II and Laboratory (3/2)			5
CHEM 130	General Organic Chemistry					3

Two courses from the following:							6-7
MATH 124	Elementary Statistics
MATH 220	Calculus and Analytic Geometry I
MATH 221	Calculus and Analytic Geometry II
MATH 222	Calculus and Analytic Geometry III
CSC 210	Introduction to Computer Programming
BIOL 458	Biometry (4)
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1)				4
PHYS 121/122	General Physics II and Laboratory (3/1)				4
Total lower division requirements						37

Upper Division Requirements (30 units)

BIOL 355	Genetics						3

One course from the following:						3
BIOL 350	Cell Biology
BIOL 401	General Microbiology
BIOL 450	Biology of the Protozoa

One course from the following:						3-4
BIOL 580	Limnology
BIOL 582	Biological Oceanography
BIOL 585	Marine Ecology (4)

One course from the following:						5
BIOL 525/526	 Plant Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 630/631	 Animal Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)

Upper Division Electives

NOTE: Upper division electives should be selected from the recommended courses
listed below upon consultation with an adviser. With the adviser's consent
students may also use as electives: marine science courses taught at Moss Landing;
other upper division biology courses; or appropriate graduate courses with the instructor's permission.

Electives								15-16
BIOL 502	Biology of the Algae
BIOL 555	Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
BIOL 556	Natural History of Marine Invertebrates (4)
BIOL 570	Biology of Fishes (4)
BIOL 575	Fisheries Biology
BIOL 580	Limnology
BIOL 590	San Francisco Bay Ecology
BIOL 582	Biological Oceanography
BIOL 585	Marine Ecology (4)
BIOL 606	Behavior and Physiology of Marine Mammals
Total upper division requirements					30
Total for major								67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN MICROBIOLOGY

The student may select courses emphasizing general microbiology or medical microbiology. The selection of an appropriate program not only prepares the student for careers in research, industry, public health, clinical laboratory, or state or federal service but also provides the basis for post-graduate study which may lead to the Master of Arts in Biology: Concentration in Microbiology.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all Biology students.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (34 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I					5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II					5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I					5
CHEM 113-114	 General Chemistry II and Laboratory (3/2)		5
MATH 220	Calculus and Analytic Geometry I			3

One course selected from the following:					3-4
MATH 124	Elementary Statistics
MATH 221	Calculus and Analytic Geometry II
MATH 222	Calculus and Analytic Geometry III
CSC 210	Introduction to Computer Programming
BIOL 458	Biometry (4)
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1)			4
PHYS 121/122	General Physic II and Laboratory (3/1)			4
Total lower division requirements					34
		
 Upper Division Requirements (33 units)
BIOL 355	Genetics						3
BIOL 401/402	General Microbiology and Laboratory (3/2)		5
BIOL 442/443	Microbial Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)		5
CHEM 333/335	 Organic Chemistry I and Organic Chemistry II (3/3)	6
CHEM 340	Biochemistry I or
CHEM 349	General Biochemistry					3

Electives (i.e., BIOL 411-454) including at least 
two laboratory courses with approval of an adviser			11
Total upper division requirements					33
Total for major								67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN PHYSIOLOGY

This program is designed to provide a firm foundation in physiology. Students interested in vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant physiology will find this concentration appropriate. The program is especially suited for preparation for advanced study at the postgraduate level or to prepare for careers in the health professions. In addition to major curricula in physiology, service courses are provided for nursing, clinical science, and physical education majors.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all Biology students.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (37 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I						5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II						5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I						5
CHEM 113/114	 General Chemistry II and Laboratory (3/2)			5
CHEM 130	General Organic Chemistry					3
MATH 220	Calculus and Analytic Geometry I				3

One course selected from the following:						3-4
MATH 124	Elementary Statistics
MATH 221	Calculus and Analytic Geometry II
MATH 222	Calculus and Analytic Geometry III
BIOL 458	Biometry (4) 11

One set of the following:							8
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1) and
PHYS 121/122	General Physics II and Laboratory (3/1) or
PHYS 220/222	General Physics with Calculus I and Laboratory (3/1) and
PHYS 230/232	General Physics with Calculus II and Laboratory (3/1)
Total lower division requirements						37

Upper Division Requirements (30 units)
BIOL 350	Cell Biology							3
BIOL 355	Genetics							3
CHEM 340	Biochemistry I or
CHEM 349	General Biochemistry						3

Three required physiology courses selected from 
the following (one course must contain a laboratory component):			10-11
BIOL 525/526	Plant Physiology andLaboratory (3/2)
BIOL 560	Marine Invertebrate Physiology and Laboratory (4)
BIOL 612/613	Human Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 620	Endocrinology
BIOL 621	Reproductive Physiology
BIOL 640	Neurosciences I
BIOL 642	Neurosciences II
BIOL 630/631	Animal Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)

Electives selected in consultation with an adviser from the following:		10-11

Criteria for elective units: one elective must
contain a laboratory component; one elective must be chosen from each of the
emphases listed below; and additional electives may be selected from the list of 
required physiology courses and/or either of the emphases listed below.

Cellular and Molecular Emphasis
CHEM 343	Biochemistry I Laboratory
BIOL 343	Cellular and Molecular Immunology
BIOL 351	Cell Biology Laboratory (4)
BIOL 357	Molecular Genetics
BIOL 361	Human Genetics
BIOL 382	Developmental Biology
BIOL 615	Molecular Pathophysiology
BIOL 699	Special Study in Biology (1-3)
BIOL 865	Advances in Physiology and Behavioral Biology (2) 12

Ecological, Anatomical, and Evolutionary Emphasis
BIOL 328	Human Anatomy (4)
BIOL 337	Evolution
BIOL 482	Animal Ecology (4)
BIOL 504	Biology of Fungi (4)
BIOL 505	Comparative Anatomy of Vascular Plants (4)
BIOL 529	Plant Ecology (4)
BIOL 555	Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
BIOL 585	Marine Ecology and Laboratory (4)
BIOL 600	Animal Behavior (4)
BIOL 606	Behavior and Physiology of Marine Mammals
BIOL 614	Vertebrate Histology (4)
BIOL 699	Special Study in Biology (1-3)
BIOL 865	Physiology and Behavioral Biology Seminar (2) 12
Total upper division requirements		30
Total for major		67-68
NOTE: any courses taken to fill the physiology requirements may not also be used as elective credit. No more than one BIOL 699 or BIOL 865 may be used as an elective.

Students interested in pursuing graduate study in physiology should take the one-year organic chemistry sequence (CHEM 333/335) and the one-year biochemistry sequence (CHEM 340/341) in place of CHEM 130 and CHEM 349.

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN ZOOLOGY

This program provides students with a broad background in animal biology through course work in evolutionary biology, ecology, behavior, anatomy, and physiology of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Upper division electives may be chosen from one of four emphases: general zoology, vertebrate zoology, entomology, or animal behavior. It is recommended that no matter which of the emphases a student selects, that a background in both vertebrate and invertebrate biology be obtained through selection of appropriate elective courses; e.g., students electing an emphasis in vertebrate zoology should also take course work in invertebrate zoology or entomology. Electives may be selected from those listed below or from alternatives not used in fulfilling the upper division requirements.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all Biology students.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (37 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I					5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II					5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I					5
CHEM 113/114	General Chemistry II and Laboratory (3/2)		5
CHEM 130	General Organic Chemistry				3

Two courses selected from the following:				6-7
MATH 124	Elementary Statistics
MATH 220	Calculus and Analytic Geometry I
MATH 221	Calculus and Analytic Geometry II
MATH 222	Calculus and Analytic Geometry III
CSC 210		Introduction to Computer Programming
BIOL 458	Biometry (4)
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1)			4
PHYS 121/122	General Physics II and Laboratory (3/1)			4
Total lower division requirements					37

Upper Division Requirements (30 units)

Students must see an adviser in order to work out a suitable program from choices given below.

BIOL 355	Genetics						3
BIOL 337	Evolution						3

One course from:							3
BIOL 350	Cell Biology
BIOL 450	Biology of the Protozoa

One course from:							5
BIOL 612/613	Human Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)
BIOL 630/631	Animal Physiology and Laboratory (3/2)

One course from the following:						4
BIOL 482	Animal Ecology (4)
BIOL 529	Plant Ecology (4)
BIOL 585	Marine Ecology (4)

One course from the following:						4
BIOL 460	General Entomology (4)
BIOL 492	Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (4)
BIOL 555	Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)

Upper division electives selected in consultation 
with an adviser from one of the following 
areas of emphasis:							8

General Zoology Emphasis
Select at least one course from each of the 
following:

Entomology

BIOL 460	General Entomology (4)
BIOL 461	Insect Taxonomy
BIOL 464	Medical Entomology
BIOL 466	Preparation for Field Studies in Entomology (1)
BIOL 467	Field Studies in Entomology (1-3)

Invertebrate Zoology

BIOL 453/454	General Parasitology and Laboratory (3/1)
BIOL 555	Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
BIOL 556	Natural History of Marine Invertebrates (4)

Vertebrate Zoology

BIOL 470	Natural History of Vertebrates (4)
BIOL 570	Biology of Fishes (4)
BIOL 600	General Animal Behavior (4)
BIOL 620	Endocrinology
BIOL 621	Reproductive Physiology
Vertebrate Zoology Emphasis
BIOL 380	Embryology (4)
BIOL 470	Natural History of Vertebrates (4)
BIOL 475	Herpetology
BIOL 478	Ornithology
BIOL 480	Mammalogy (4)
BIOL 570	Biology of Fishes (4)
BIOL 600	General Animal Behavior (4)
BIOL 620	Endocrinology
BIOL 621	Reproductive Physiology
Entomology Emphasis13
BIOL 460	General Entomology (4)
BIOL 461	Insect Taxonomy
BIOL 464	Medical Entomology
BIOL 466	Preparation for Field Studies in Entomology (1)
BIOL 467	Field Studies in Entomology (1-3)
BIOL 514	Plant Taxonomy (5)
Animal Behavior Emphasis
Students emphasizing in animal behavior are
required to take BIOL 600, General Animal
Behavior (4), in addition to 4-6 units of
electives taken from:
BIOL 603	Behavior of Captive Wild Animals
BIOL 604	Behavior of Captive Wild Animals Laboratory (1)
BIOL 606	The Behavior and Physiology of Marine Mammals
BIOL 640	Neurosciences I
BIOL 641	Neurosciences Laboratory (1)
Total upper division requirements					30
Total for major								67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CLINICAL SCIENCE

The Clinical Science Program is specifically designed for students intending to enter the career field of Clinical Laboratory Science (Medical Technology). It leads to the Bachelor of Science in Clinical Science. This four-year academic program must be followed by a training period as a clinical laboratory scientist trainee. This may be done at the Center for Biomedical Laboratory Science which offers a post-baccalaureate clinical training program taking 16 students each January and July. Students are then eligible to take the licensing examination given by the California State Department of Health Services and the registry examination offered by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP) Board of Registry. Successful completion of these steps allows one to serve as a licensed Clinical Laboratory Scientist in a hospital or in other medical laboratories which deal with the analysis of specimens, usually of human origin.

Candidates in this program should have had three years of high school mathematics and chemistry with a grade of B or better in order to complete the curriculum in normal time. All major course work must be completed with a letter grade (i.e., CR/NC option not applicable to major course work except as noted below for CLEP equivalency credit). A minor in chemistry is encouraged.

Units

Lower Division Requirements (34-35 units)

BIOL 230	Introductory Biology I					5
BIOL 240	Introductory Biology II					5
CHEM 111	General Chemistry I					5
CHEM 113/114	 General Chemistry II and Laboratory (3/2)		5
CHEM 130	General Organic Chemistry				3
PHYS 111/112	General Physics I and Laboratory (3/1)			4
PHYS 121/122	General Physics II and Laboratory (3/1)			4
MATH 220	Calculus and Analytical Geometry I 
or
MATH 124	Statistics or
BIOL 458	Biometry (4)						3-4
Total lower division requirements					34-35

Upper Division Requirements (41-43 units)

BIOL 355	Genetics						3
BIOL 401/402	General Microbiology and Laboratory (3/2)		5
BIOL 430	Medical Microbiology					5
BIOL 435	Immunology						3
BIOL 436	Immunology Laboratory					2
BIOL 453/454	General Parasitology and Laboratory (3/1)		4
BIOL 612	Human Physiology					3
BIOL 625	Hematology						3
CHEM 320	Modern Methods of Quantitative Chemical Analysis	4
CHEM 347	Clinical Biochemistry					2
CHEM 348	Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory			2
CHEM 349	General Biochemistry					3

Upper division electives from the following:				2-4
BIOL 420	General Virology (2)
BIOL 421	General Virology Laboratory (2)
BIOL 439	Medical Mycology (4)
CHEM 334	Organic Chemistry I Laboratory (2)
Total upper division requirements					41-43
Total for major								74-77

MINOR IN GENERAL BIOLOGY

The minor requires a minimum of 23 units in biology, of which at least one-half must be upper division units.

All courses in the minor must be completed with letter grades (CR/NC is not acceptable).

At least one course must be selected, with advisement, from each of the following areas:

CERTIFICATE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

This fourteen to nineteen unit program is designed to allow students who are pursuing an undergraduate major in biology or biochemistry to learn the theoretical basis of bioprocessing/fermentation technology. An integral part of the program is a supervised internship to be served in a Bay Area biotechnology company laboratory. Laboratory-oriented students will find an expanding demand for their skills upon completion of the program both in the Bay Area and nationwide.

Students must earn a grade of "C" or better in all prerequisite courses, and be prepared to provide copies of transcripts demonstrating completion of prerequisites.

Units

Prerequisites

BIOL 355	Genetics						3
BIOL 401	General Microbiology					3
BIOL 402	General Microbiology Laboratory				2
BIOL 442	Microbial Physiology					3
BIOL 443	Microbial Physiology Laboratory				2
CHEM 340	Biochemistry I						3
CHEM 341	Biochemistry II						3
Total prerequisites							19

Required Courses

CHEM 343	Biochemistry Laboratory					3
BIOL 694	Cooperative Internship in Biology
		(to be taken in final semester)				3
Total required courses							6

Elective courses (choose two lecture and two laboratory courses)	8-13
BIOL 350	Cell Biology and
BIOL 351	Experiments in Cell Biology and Genetics (4)
BIOL 357	Molecular Genetics and
BIOL 358	Microbial Genetics Laboratory
BIOL 411	Environmental and Industrial Microbiology (4)
BIOL 420	General Virology (2) and
BIOL 421	General Virology Laboratory (2)
BIOL 343	Cellular and Molecular Immunology or
BIOL 435	Immunology and
BIOL 436	Immunology Laboratory (2)
Total for certificate (excluding prerequisites)				14-19

MASTER OF ARTS IN BIOLOGY

A student interested in pursuing an advanced degree in any of these programs must meet the general requirements as outlined as well as any additional requirements specified by the major field of study.

General Admission Requirements

An applicant must have a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution and the equivalent major course work for the program area to which application is made. The grade point average in the major for fully classified status must be at least 2.75. To evaluate an applicant, the Biology Department requires the following: (1) transcripts of all undergraduate work; (2) Graduate Record Examination scores for the general test; (3) a statement of purpose; (4) two or more letters of recommendation preferably from science faculty. Evaluation of applicants in each program area is made by a committee of faculty. An applicant may be admitted as a classified graduate student, a conditionally classified graduate student, or may be denied admission. Classified graduate students must have a satisfactory GPA in the undergraduate major; the course equivalent of our bachelor's degree in biology for the chosen program area; a score on the GRE that demonstrates scholastic competence; a satisfactory statement of purpose; and strong letters of recommendation. Conditionally classified graduate students must essentially meet the above criteria except for minor inadequacies in the GPA or in course equivalency for the undergraduate major. A conditionally admitted student may take courses but may not file a Graduate Approved Program until the conditions have been fulfilled. Denial of admission is based on one or more of the following: (1) low GPA in the undergraduate major; (2) insufficient undergraduate preparation; (3) unsatisfactory scores on the GRE; (4) weak letters of recommendation describing the applicant's potential for graduate study; (5) non-availability of faculty expertise or facilities in the area of the applicant's interest; (6) a statement of purpose which is not within the goals and objectives of the chosen program area.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Each graduate student is required to demonstrate an acceptable level of written English proficiency at two points. Level One: during the first semester's enrollment the student must take and pass a proctored essay test administered by the department. Level Two: prior to filing the Graduate Approved Program (GAP), the student must prepare a thesis prospectus which is read and approved by the student's thesis committee.

Courses for this discipline are listed in alphabetical sequence (consult Index for page reference). Most upper division courses offered in the five biology programs may be acceptable for the master's in biology and clinical science upon approval of the graduate adviser. Students are reminded to check the individual program areas for additional requirements.

VI. The general requirements of all students are as follows:
a. All courses taken by graduate students in Biology for use on the Graduate Approved Program (GAP) or to satisfy conditional requirements must be completed with letter grades (CR/NC is not applicable).
b. Thirty units of upper division and/or graduate credit (may include up to six units of experimental courses in Biology).
c. A minimum of sixteen units of credit in graduate level courses.
d. A minimum of two department seminars requiring student presentations.
e. After initiating a research program, a graduate student must enroll each semester in BIOL 897 or 898 (for which a student can only be enrolled once) until the research is completed or the Graduate Approved Program is filed.
In the absence of course conflicts, each graduate student must enroll in at least one graduate course per semester, excluding BIOL 897 or 898.
VII. Alternate 1. M.A. by research and thesis (for students completing one of the five concentrations).
a. Students who elect this program must complete a minimum of three and a maximum of six units of Biology 897 to be counted toward the 30 required units.
b. Four (4) units of Biology 898, Thesis.
c. An oral defense of the thesis research.
VIII. Alternate 2. M.A. by research and examinations (may be selected by students completing the general biology program)
a. A maximum of four units of Biology 897, Research.
b. A written examination taken during the student's first or second semester. This examination may be repeated with a three-semester time limit for satisfactory passage.
c. A comprehensive oral examination. If portions of this examination are unsatisfactory, they may be repeated one time.
Students wishing to elect Alternate 2, must follow the procedural guidelines formulated by the Biology Graduate Committee. These are available from the Biology graduate secretary.

Master of Arts in Biology: Concentration in Cell and Molecular Biology

The program is designed for students preparing for future graduate work as well as for those wishing to increase their competency in the fields of cell and molecular biology. It emphasizes the study of cells, cell organelles, macromolecules, and the regulation of their production and interaction. As such, it represents an expanding frontier of research that integrates biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, developmental biology, and cell ultrastructure.

See the Master of Arts in Biology section above for general information for all Biology graduate students.

The specific course requirements, which may vary, shall be determined by the student's committee and are based upon consideration such as goals, interests, and undergraduate preparation. A strong background in chemistry is highly recommended.

Master of Arts in Biology: Concentration in Conservation Biology

Students can select areas of specialization within the framework of conservation biology. Every faculty member serves as adviser and major professor for students working on research programs in the faculty member's area of specialization. The graduate program is tailored by advisement to the interests and needs of each student. The areas of emphasis in the conservation biology program are: conservation, evolution, and population biology of rare and endangered species; ecology of invasive species; management and conservation of natural communities; restoration ecology; applied ecology. For further details contact the program graduate coordinator.

Units

Basic Requirements

BIOL 897	Research						3-6
BIOL 898	Master's Thesis						4

Concentration Requirements

BIOL 812	Systematic Biology					3
BIOL 830	Conservation Biology					3
BIOL 840	Community Ecology					3
BIOL 843	Population Biology					3

Master of Arts in Biology: Concentration in Ecology and Systematic Biology

The program offers the Master of Arts in Biology with a Concentration in Ecology and Systematic Biology. Students can select areas of specialization within the framework of ecology, systematics, behavior, and evolutionary biology. Every faculty member serves as adviser and major professor for students working on research programs in the faculty member's area of specialization.

The graduate program is tailored by advisement to the interests of each student. The areas of emphasis in this program are: ecology, systematics, behavior, and evolution as related to the areas of biology, botany, mycology, and zoology; community, population, reproductive, behavioral, physiological, and evolutionary ecology; taxonomy, biodiversity, and biogeography; classical and molecular systematics. For further details, contact the program graduate coordinator.

See the Master of Arts in Biology section above for general information for all Biology graduate students.

Master of Arts in Biology: Concentration in Marine Biology

Moss Landing Coordinator--R. Larson

Programs in this area reflect the fact that marine biology is a meeting place for all the biological sciences and some of the physical sciences. Graduate work may be broad or follow specific program areas as ecology, systematics, functional morphology, physiology, and ethology.

The marine program and facilities of San Francisco State University are strongly supported by the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, a modern seashore laboratory which is operated cooperatively with four other state universities. Courses offered at Moss Landing can be found in alphabetical sequence under Marine Science (consult Index for page reference).

Students interested in study through this program are urged to observe the general requirements in the Bulletin as well as the specific requirements stated here. For further information contact the program's graduate coordinator.

The applicant must have the equivalent of the Bachelor of Arts in General Biology at San Francisco State University, supplemented with additional training in marine biology that indicates the capability to pursue graduate study.

See the Master of Arts in Biology section above for general information for all Biology graduate students.

In addition to the M.A. in Biology requirements, the student is required to take a minimum of one course at an approved marine biology station as part of the 30-unit requirement. The program of studies may vary and shall be determined by the student's committee or graduate adviser.

Master of Arts in Biology: Concentration in Microbiology

The study of microbes and viruses is central to the fields of molecular biology, pathogenesis, immunity, and biotechnology; they are also important in the study of the biochemical and genetic properties of cells and organisms, as well as their ecology. The M.A. program provides course work and research opportunities for students who have career goals in research or industry or who wish to obtain a Ph.D. after completing the master's degree.

Students interested in the M.S. in Biomedical Laboratory Science should contact the graduate coordinator in the Center for Biomedical Laboratory Science (CBLS) (consult Index for page reference).

Admission to Program

Applicants must possess a baccalaureate degree in biological or physical sciences, with at least two laboratory courses in microbiology, one year of general physics, one year of general chemistry, and one year of organic chemistry. Acceptance to fully classified status will be determined by departmental evaluation.

See the Master of Arts in Biology section above for general information for all Biology graduate students.

The following additional requirements are to be included.

Units

A minimum of eighteen units of credit in 
graduate level courses which must include:
BIOL 884	Seminar: Microbiology					1
BIOL 864	Advanced Microbiology					2
At least one graduate laboratory course in
microbiology chosen from BIOL 739, 
741, 744, and 755							3-4

Master of Arts in Biology: Concentration in Physiology and Behavioral Biology

The program offers the Master of Arts in Biology with a Concentration in Physiology and Behavioral Biology. The program is flexible and, with a program adviser, the student may plan a program to fit his/her particular interests, such as completion of a teaching credential when the Master of Arts is required, or preparation for employment or further education.

Admission to Program

In addition to the baccalaureate degree, or the equivalent, in biological sciences, the program requires that the applicant have the equivalent of one semester of upper division physiology with laboratory, two semesters of college physics, two semesters of general college chemistry, and one semester of organic chemistry.

See the Master of Arts in Biology section above for general information for all Biology graduate students.

CERTIFICATE IN GENETIC ENGINEERING

This thirteen-unit program is designed to allow students who have completed an undergraduate degree in basic science with a molecular biological emphasis to learn the techniques and principles of genetic engineering by both lecture and laboratory/project experience, balanced with an integrated presentation of both ethical concerns and safety considerations. This program will further prepare students to make transitions into careers in the area of biotechnology or to enter advanced degree programs. Graduate students intending to secure both a master's degree and the certificate may pursue these objectives concurrently with consultation and approval of the graduate degree faculty adviser. All course work used to satisfy the requirements must be taken on an A-F graded basis and must be completed with a minimum grade point average of 3.0. Due to laboratory space limitations, total enrollment in the program will be restricted.

Before being considered for acceptance to this certificate program, the student must first be eligible in accordance with all university requirements as outlined in the section Certificate Programs (consult Index for page reference). This same section also includes university program guidelines and procedures to be followed in filing for the award of the certificate when it is completed.

Admission to the Program

To be admitted to the program an applicant must have completed a baccalaureate degree and must be admitted to classified graduate standing in the university in accordance with standard admissions requirements and procedures. In addition to application procedures specified by the university, applicants must:

1. Submit to the certificate coordinator a copy of transcripts used for the baccalaureate degree, transcripts of other relevant study, and evidence of graduate standing in the university. The following courses from San Francisco State University, or their equivalents, are prerequisites and must be completed before the program is initiated.
a. BIOL 401/402, General Microbiology and Laboratory, or
BIOL 350/351, Cell Biology and Experiments in Cell Biology and Genetics
b. BIOL 355, Genetics
c. BIOL 357, Molecular Genetics
d. CHEM 340 and 341, Biochemistry I and II, and
CHEM 343, Biochemistry Laboratory
3. Make arrangements to have a minimum of two letters of recommendation sent to the coordinator.
4. Applications should be addressed to Genetic Engineering Coordinator, Department of Biology, San Francisco, CA 94132. Applications for admission in the Fall semester should be received by July 1, and by December 1 for the Spring semester.
The program consists of a series of laboratory and lecture courses designed to provide competence in recombinant DNA methodology and allied areas.

Units

Program

BIOL 743	Recombinant DNA Techniques				3
Minimum total								13		
BIOL 744	Experiments in Genetic Engineering			4
Minimum of six unts from the following:					6
BIOL 358	Microbial Genetics Laboratory	
BIOL 420/421	General Virology and Laboratory (2/2)
BIOL 739	Cell andTissue Culture (4)
BIOL 745	Genetic Engineering Spial
		Projects Laboratory (4)
	

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Students must demonstrate an appropriate level of writing competency. This shall be accomplished by satisfactory preparation of written laboratory reports in BIOL 744 which demonstrate competency in scientific report writing and analysis of data. The instructor of this course shall determine whether reports have met those criteria and so specify on the Certificate Approved Program form. If the student's work is unsatisfactory, additional course work directed to achieving English competency may be specified after consultation with the coordinator.



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