Biology

College of Science and Engineering
Dean: Sheldon Axler

Department of Biology
FRN
415-338-1548
Web Site: www.sfsu.edu/~biology
Chair: John Hafernik

Graduate Coordinator: Robert Patterson

Graduate Advisers:
Cell and Molecular Biology/Microbiology—R. Ramirez
Conservation Biology/Ecology and Systematic Biology—R. Patterson
Marine Biology—R. Larson
Physiology and Behavioral Biology—C. Moffatt
Biomedical Laboratory Science—J. Romeo

Center for Biomedical Laboratory Science
SCI 211
415-338-1696
Web Site: www.sfsu.edu/~cbls
E-mail: cbls@sfsu.edu
Coordinator: Joseph Romeo

Faculty

Professors—Antipa, Arp, Barnes, Bayliss, Blackwood,, Bollens, Breckler, Carnal, Carpenter, Connor, Desjardin, Goldman, Hafernik, Larson, Markowitz, Márquez-Magaña, Morelli, Niesen, Parker, Patterson, Randall, Rothman, Routman, Spicer, Stubbs, Whalen, Williams

Associate Professors—Burrus, Domingo, He, Moffatt, Ramirez, Romeo, Weinstein

Assistant Professors—Boyer, Chen, Chu, Cohen, Crocker, Denetclaw, Fuse, LeBuhn, Pasion, Smith-Beckerman, Storz, Swanson, Ramirez-Weber, Tanner, Uy

California Academy of Sciences Research Professors—Almeda, Burke, Daniels, Drewes, Fisher, Fritsch, Gosliner, Griswold, Jablonski, Kavanaugh, Kociolek, Leviton, Long, McCosker, Mooi, Roopnarine, Steiner, Tang, Van Syc, Williams

Adjunct Faculty—Allen, Alegria-Hartman, Cipriano, Clark, Cochlan, Dailey, Dickinson, Dugdale, Ferrari, Gilbert, Greenleaf, Julian, Kimmerer, Lee, Lowenstein, Nur, Obrebski, Orrego, Parry, Ralston, Reynolds, Robinson, Rollwagen-Bollens, Russel, Sime, Smith, Sydeman, Ward, Weiss, Wilkerson

Programs

B.A. in Biology, General
B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Botany
B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Cell and Molecular Biology
B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Ecology
B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Marine Biology and Limnology
B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Microbiology
B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Physiology
B.S. in Biology: Concentration in Zoology
B.S. in Clinical Science
Minor in Biology
Certificate in Biotechnology
M.S. in Biology: Concentration in Cell and Molecular Biology
M.S. in Biology: Concentration in Conservation Biology
M.S. in Biology: Concentration in Ecology and Systematic Biology
M.S. in Biology: Concentration in Marine Biology
M.S. in Biology: Concentration in Microbiology
M.S. in Biology: Concentration in Physiology and Behavioral Biology
M.S. in Biomedical Laboratory Science
Certificate in Genetic Engineering


Program Scope

The Department of Biology provides undergraduate and graduate programs covering the breadth of biology. Course work ranges from introductory biology to specialized courses in disciplines of modern biology. The department has grouped courses into "concentrations" to help advise students of appropriate programs of study in various biology disciplines. Each concentration provides breadth of background in basic biological concepts as well as depth in the specific discipline. Students should consult with an adviser early in their program of study to design an individualized program within the concentration of interest. Lists of advisers are available from the Biology Department office and web site, www.sfsu.edu/~biology.

The department sponsors the Master of Arts in Biology with concentrations in cell and molecular biology, ecology and systematic biology, marine biology, microbiology, and physiology and behavioral biology and a Master of Science in Biomedical Laboratory Science. These graduate degree programs provide advanced course work, seminar experiences, and require original research and a written thesis. Thus, the master’s degree provides substantial educational depth and training, giving the student a sound foundation for employment or for study in doctoral programs.

Joint Program with California Academy of Sciences in Systematics, Ecology, and Conservation Biology. The Department of Biology and California Academy of Sciences have instituted a joint graduate program. This program builds on the complementary strengths of each institution to address the national and international imperative to train a new generation of biologists in systematics, ecology, and conservation biology. Research staff of the California Academy of Sciences who have joined the Department of Biology as research professors contribute to the teaching program, offer seminars and other courses at the California Academy of Sciences and supervise graduate student research.

Cooperative Doctoral Program with Collaborating Doctoral Universities. This cooperative partnership presents an exceptional model program between a "non-degree" comprehensive institution (SFSU) and seven pre-eminent Carnegie Foundation designated Research I institutions (UC, Davis; UC, San Francisco; UC, Los Angeles; UC, San Diego; Harvard University, Northwestern University; and Stanford University). Students participating in this Bridge cooperative program have the choice of eight graduate biology and chemistry/biochemistry MS concentrations at SFSU in preparation to earning the Ph.D. in biology, chemistry, or biochemistry in one of the nineteen Ph.D. programs at UC, Davis; thirteen Ph.D. programs at UC, San Francisco; five Ph.D. programs at UC, Los Angeles; four Ph.D. programs at UC, San Diego; five Ph.D. programs at Harvard University; three Ph.D. programs at Northwestern University; and one Ph.D. program at Stanford University.

Biomedical Laboratory Science. The Center for Biomedical Laboratory Science (CBLS) offers the Master of Science in Biomedical Laboratory Science. CBLS also offers a non-credit 180-hour program (through the SFSU College of Extended Learning) for professional certification of phlebotomists.

By working closely with an adviser, the M.S. student can select courses which provide an emphasis in: clinical chemistry, immunology, microbiology, clinical laboratory science education, or virology. For additional information regarding the master's program, please contact CBLS at (415) 338-1696 or www.sfsu.edu/~cbls.

Career Outlook

This is an exciting time for graduates with degrees in biology. New breakthroughs in understanding living systems are leading to the development of new career opportunities at a rapid rate. In this regard, the undergraduate degrees can open the door to excellent career opportunities in industry, health care, public agencies, secondary school teaching, academia, and many other areas. Many graduates enter careers in the biotechnology industry, in the health professions, and environmental and conservation biology. High level positions in industry and academia commonly require advanced graduate work. The bachelor of science degrees are designed to give students the training they need to enter doctoral or master's programs in biology and related disciplines. Each year many San Francisco State biology graduates are accepted into the top doctoral programs in the country. SFSU's biology programs also have a strong record of placing students in medical and dental schools.

The Bay Area is one of the world's largest centers for the biotechnology industry. The majors in cell and molecular biology and microbiology and the certificate programs in genetic engineering (graduate) and biotechnology (undergraduate) emphasize the latest science of bioinformatics, genomes, transcriptomics and proteomics, and cutting edge technologies such as microarray analysis. Many companies actively recruit SFSU students for positions or internships, and SFSU graduates are well represented in many prominent biotechnology companies. Employment opportunities vary from manufacturing to technical research support to biotechnology and pharmaceuticals research management.

Graduates of the M.S. in Biomedical Laboratory Science tend to be employed in biotechnology companies, work in research laboratories, or continue to other advanced degrees. CLS job opportunities are primarily in hospital and reference laboratories, but students are well prepared for careers in laboratory administration, laboratory consultants, marketing and technical specialists for laboratory products, industrial technical representatives, biotechnology, research technicians, etc. There is a national shortage of training opportunities for biomedical laboratory specialists. Consequently, the long term career outlook for graduates of CBLS's programs is excellent.

UNDERGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMS IN BIOLOGY

General Information

All major course work must be completed with letter grades (CR/NC is not acceptable) and a minimum grade point average of 2.0 in all course work applicable to the major. Students who are pursuing a bachelor’s degree in biology must earn a grade of "C–" or better in all prerequisite courses and be prepared to provide copies of transcripts demonstrating completion of prerequisites. Candidates entering the bachelor's programs in biology should have completed three years of high school mathematics and one year of high school chemistry to allow completion of the curriculum in normal time (see Undergraduate Admission Requirements). At least twelve upper division units in biology must be completed at San Francisco State University. Early in the first semester, and at regular intervals thereafter, students must consult with an adviser to plan a program of study. For the most current advising information, consult the SFSU Biology home page at www.sfsu.edu/~biology.

The department does not permit multiple concentrations within the biology degree program. All of the curricula require preliminary work in physics and chemistry because many important biological concepts are based squarely upon principles in the physical sciences. Also, each curriculum includes upper division work in the most fundamental and well-developed segments of biological knowledge so that students who select a concentration also are assured of receiving background of reasonable breadth. Because of the sequential arrangement of courses that is intrinsic to any science curriculum, students are urged to consult descriptions for the prerequisites of courses in which they expect to enroll. Students planning professional careers in biology should become proficient in mathematics through calculus and in English.

The Department of Biology is formally affiliated with the California Academy of Sciences. The facilities and collections of the academy are available for selected students pursuing research in the biological sciences. The Sierra Nevada Field Campus near Sierra City and the Romberg Tiburon Center in Marin County, components of the university, and the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories operated by a consortium of the California State University are also accessible for class and research use.

On-line course descriptions are available.

BACHELOR OF ARTS IN GENERAL BIOLOGY

The curriculum in general biology provides students with exposure to a broad spectrum of biological sciences including genetics, cell biology, physiology, ecology, organismal and evolutionary biology. Since basic principles of physical science are central to many biological concepts, course work in physics and chemistry is included in the lower division requirements. The B.A. program is suited for students preparing for professional schools, including teacher credentialing programs, or careers that require students to be versed in diverse areas of biology.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all biology students. Students preparing to become teachers should note that additional science preparation beyond the major is required; thus, it is important to consult early and often with a credential adviser in the Biology Department to plan the major and keep abreast of any state mandated changes in requirements.

Lower Division Requirements (32-33 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 130 General Organic Chemistry 3
CHEM 215 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts (CHEM 216 is recommended) 3
PHYS 111/
112
General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1) 4
PHYS 121/
122
General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1) 4
MATH 124 Elementary Statistics or 3-4
 MATH 226 Calculus I (4)
  Total lower division requirements 32-33
Upper Division Requirements (24-25 units)
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
One physiology course from the following: 3
  BIOL 525 Plant Physiology  
  BIOL 612 Human Physiology
  BIOL 630 Animal Physiology
One cell biology course from the following: 3
  BIOL 350 Cell Biology  
  BIOL 401 General Microbiology
  BIOL 435 Immunology
  BIOL 450 Biology of the Protozoa
  BIOL 524 Plant Molecular Biology
  CHEM 349 General Biochemistry
One physiology or cell biology laboratory course associated with course choices listed above (substitutions allowed upon signed adviser consent) 2
One ecology course from the following: 3-4
  BIOL 482 Ecology (4)  
  BIOL 529 Plant Ecology (4)
  BIOL 580 Limnology
  BIOL 582 Biological Oceanography (4)
  BIOL 585 Marine Ecology (4)
One evolutionary or organismal biology course* from the following (substitutions allowed upon signed adviser consent): 3-5
  BIOL 328 Human Anatomy (4)  
  BIOL 337 Evolution
  BIOL 380 Comparative Embryology
  BIOL 453/454 General Parasitology/Laboratory (3/1)
  BIOL 459 Arthropod Biology (4)
  BIOL 460 General Entomology (4)
  BIOL 461 Insect Taxonomy (4)
  BIOL 475 Herpetology
  BIOL 478 Ornithology
  BIOL 480 Mammalogy (4)
  BIOL 500 Evolution and Diversity of Plants (4)
  BIOL 502 Biology of the Algae (4)
  BIOL 504 Biology of the Fungi (4)
  BIOL 505 Comparative Anatomy of Vascular Plants (4)
  BIOL 514 Plant Taxonomy (5)
  BIOL 555 Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
  BIOL 570 Biology of Fishes (4)
Upper division electives selected in consultation with an adviser 4-8
  Total upper division requirements 24-25
  Total for major 57

*Students planning to earn a teaching credential must take an evolution course and an organismal biology course. SCI 510 (Search for Solutions), an interdisciplinary science capstone course, is accepted and recommended as an elective.

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN BOTANY

The program provides opportunities for study in ecological, systematic and taxonomic, physiological, morphological, anatomical, molecular, and genetic aspects of botany. Course work in an array of plant groups is offered, including vascular plants, algae, fungi, mosses, and lichens. Where applicable, field work in courses is emphasized, including instruction at the Sierra Nevada Field Campus and at the Romberg Tiburon Center.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all biology students.

Lower Division Requirements (34-35 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 130 General Organic Chemistry 3
Units selected from the following: 16-17
  CHEM 215/ 216 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts/Laboratory (3/2)  
  MATH 226 Calculus I (4)  
  MATH 226 Calculus II (4)  
  PHYS 111/112 General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1)  
  PHYS 121/122 General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1)  
  Total lower division requirements 34-35
Upper Division Requirements (32-33 units)
BIOL 337 Evolution 3
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
BIOL 458 Biometry 4
BIOL 525/526 Plant Physiology/Laboratory (3/2) 5
BIOL 529 Plant Ecology 4
Units selected from the following: 4
  BIOL 500 Evolution and Diversity of Plants (4)  
  BIOL 505   Comparative Anatomy of Vascular Plants (4)
Units selected from the following: 4-5
  BIOL 502 Biology of the Algae (4)  
  BIOL 504 Biology of the Fungi (4)
  BIOL 514 Plant Taxonomy (5)
Upon advisement, electives from the alternates not used in fulfilling the requirements listed above or any other upper division biology courses not specifically excluded for major credit, or any graduate course in biology. 4-5
  Total upper division requirements 32-33
  Total for major 67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Fundamental course work in allied sciences and mathematics prepares the student for advanced studies in cell and molecular biology. The program is also recommended for pre-medical students because it includes many of the courses required for admission to medical school. (For more information, see Pre-health Professions.)

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all biology students.

Lower Division Requirements (35-36 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 215/216 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts/Laboratory (3/2) 5
MATH 226 Calculus I 4
One course selected from the following: 3-4
  MATH 124 Elementary Statistics  
  MATH 227 Calculus II (4)1
  MATH 228 Calculus III (4)
  CSC 210 Introduction to Computer Programming
  BIOL 458 Biometry (4)
PHYS 111/112 General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1) 4
PHYS 121/122 General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1) 4
  Total lower division requirements 35-36
Upper Division Requirements (36 units)
BIOL 350 Cell Biology 3
BIOL 351 Experiments in Cell and Molecular Biology 4
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
BIOL 357 Molecular Genetics 3
BIOL 382 Developmental Biology 3
CHEM 333/335 Organic Chemistry I and II (3/3) 6
CHEM 340/341 Biochemistry I and II (3/3) 6
Electives to include 1 course from each group below. Include 1 laboratory course. 8
Group A:
  BIOL 380 Comparative Embryology  
  BIOL 401/402 General Microbiology/Laboratory (3/2)
  BIOL 450/451 Biology of the Protozoa/Protozoology Laboratory (3/2)
  BIOL 525/526 Plant Physiology/Laboratory (3/2)
  BIOL 612/613 Human Physiology/Laboratory (3/2)
  BIOL 614 Vertebrate Histology (4)
  BIOL 630/631 Animal Physiology/Laboratory (3/2)
  BIOL 640 Cellular Neuroscience
Group B:
  BIOL 356 Honors Genetics (2)  
  BIOL 358 Experimental Techniques in Molecular Biology (4)
  BIOL 361 Human Genetics
  BIOL 391 Microscopy and Photomicrography (2)
  BIOL 420/421 General Virology/Laboratory (3/2)
  BIOL 435 Immunology
  BIOL 442/443 Microbial Physiology/Laboratory (3/2)
  BIOL 524 Plant Molecular Biology
  BIOL 620 Endocrinology
  CHEM 300 General Physical Chemistry I (2)1 or
    CHEM 343  Biochemistry I Laboratory
 CHEM 351 Physical Chemistry I
3 to 4 units of credit in graduate courses numbered BIOL 725-744, which accept qualified seniors, may be substituted with the adviser's approval.
  Total upper division requirements

36

  Total for major

71

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN ECOLOGY

This program offers a flexible but rigorous plan of study in the plant and animal sciences for students interested in ecology, natural history, conservation, and population biology; students interested in entomology, botany, or zoology may also find this concentration appropriate. The program stresses firm foundations in ecological theory, ecological technique, and natural history.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all biology students.

Lower Division Requirements (34-35 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 130 General Organic Chemistry 3
Units selected from the following: 16-17
  CHEM 215/216 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts/Laboratory (3/2)  
  MATH 226 Calculus I (4)
  MATH 227 Calculus II (4)
  PHYS 111/112 General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1)
  PHYS 121/122 General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1)
  Total lower division requirements 34-35
Upper Division Requirements (32-33 units)
BIOL 337 Evolution 3
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
BIOL 458 Biometry 4
Units selected from the following physiology courses on advisement: 3
  BIOL 525 Plant Physiology  
  BIOL 630 Animal Physiology
Units selected from the following ecology courses on advisement: 6-8
  BIOL 482 Animal Ecology (4)  
  BIOL 529 Plant Ecology (4)
  BIOL 530 Conservation Biology
  BIOL 532 Restoration Ecology
  BIOL 534 Wetland Ecology (4)
  BIOL 577 Ecological and Environmental Modeling (4)
  BIOL 580 Limnology
  BIOL 582 Biological Oceanography
  BIOL 585 Marine Ecology (4)
  BIOL 586 Marine Ecology Laboratory (2)
Upon advisement, electives from the alternates not used in fulfilling the requirements listed above, or any other upper division biology courses not specifically excluded for major credit, or any graduate course in biology. 12-14
  Total upper division requirements 32-33
  Total for major 67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN MARINE BIOLOGY AND LIMNOLOGY

Undergraduates may elect a general emphasis in marine invertebrate zoology, marine vertebrate zoology, marine botany, marine microbiology, or limnology. Graduate work may also be general or follow specific strengths such as ecology, systematics, functional morphology, physiology, ethology, estuarine, or freshwater biology. The curriculum and facilities of San Francisco State University are strongly supported by the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories and the Romberg Tiburon Center.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all biology students.

Lower Division Requirements (34-35 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 130 General Organic Chemistry 3
Units selected from the following: 16-17
  CHEM 215/216 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts/Laboratory (3/2)  
  MATH 226 Calculus I (4)
  MATH 227 Calculus II (4)
  PHYS 111/112 General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1)
  PHYS 121/122 General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1)
  Total lower division requirements 34-35
Upper Division Requirements (32-33 units)
BIOL 337 Evolution 3
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
BIOL 458 Biometry 4
Units selected from the following: 3
  BIOL 525 Plant Physiology  
  BIOL 630 Animal Physiology
Units selected from the following: 3-4
  BIOL 580 Limnology  
  BIOL 582 Biological Oceanography
  BIOL 585 Marine Ecology (4)
Upper Division Electives
Upper division electives should be selected from alternatives not used in fulfilling the requirements listed above or from the list below. Upon advisement, students may also use other upper division biology courses or appropriate graduate courses as electives.
15-17
  BIOL 450 Biology of the Protozoa  
  BIOL 451 Protozoology Laboratory (2)
  BIOL 502 Biology of the Algae
  BIOL 526 Plant Physiology Laboratory (2)
  BIOL 555 Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
  BIOL 556 Natural History of Marine Invertebrates (4)
  BIOL 570 Biology of Fishes (4)
  BIOL 575 Fisheries Biology
  BIOL 584 Marine Microbial Ecology (4)
  BIOL 606 Behavior and Physiology of Marine Mammals
  BIOL 631 Animal Physiology Laboratory (2)
  MSCI 310-375 Any without duplicating courses taken at SFSU
  Total upper division requirements 32-33
  Total for major 67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN MICROBIOLOGY

The student may select courses emphasizing general microbiology or medical microbiology. The selection of an appropriate program not only prepares the student for careers in research, industry, public health, clinical laboratory, or state or federal service but also provides the basis for post-graduate study which may lead to the Master of Arts in Biology: Concentration in Microbiology.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all biology students.

Lower Division Requirements (35-36 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 215/216 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts/Laboratory (3/2) 5
MATH 226 Calculus I 4
Units selected from the following: 3-4
  MATH 124 Elementary Statistics  
  MATH 227 Calculus II (4)
  MATH 228 Calculus III (4)
  CSC 210 Introduction to Computer Programming
  BIOL 458 Biometry (4)
PHYS 111/112 General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1) 4
PHYS 121/122 General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1) 4
  Total lower division requirements 35-36
Upper Division Requirements (33 units)
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
BIOL 401/402 General Microbiology and Laboratory (3/2) 5
BIOL 442/443 Microbial Physiology and Laboratory (3/2) 5
CHEM 333/335 Organic Chemistry I and Organic Chemistry II (3/3) 6
CHEM 340 Biochemistry I or 3
  CHEM 349   General Biochemistry
Electives in microbiology, including at least 2 laboratory courses with approval of an adviser 11
  Total upper division requirements 33
  Total for major 68-69

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN PHYSIOLOGY

This program is designed to provide a firm foundation in physiology. Students interested in vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant physiology will find this concentration appropriate. The program is especially suited for preparation for advanced study at the postgraduate level or to prepare for careers in the health professions. In addition to major curricula in physiology, service courses are provided for nursing, clinical science, exercise physiology, kinesiology, and physical therapy majors.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all biology students.

Lower Division Requirements (38-39 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 130 General Organic Chemistry 3
CHEM 215/216 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts/Laboratory (3/2) 5
MATH 226 Calculus I 4
Units selected from the following: 3-4
  MATH 124 Elementary Statistics  
  MATH 227 Calculus II (4)
  BIOL 458 Biometry (4)
One set of the following: 8
PHYS 111/112 General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1) and  
  PHYS 121/122   General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1) or
PHYS 220/222 General Physics with Calculus I/Laboratory (3/1) and
  PHYS 230/232   General Physics with Calculus II/Laboratory (3/1)
  Total lower division requirements 38-39
Upper Division Requirements (29-31 units)
BIOL 350 Cell Biology 3
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
CHEM 340 Biochemistry I or 3
  CHEM 349   General Biochemistry
Physiology core courses selected from the following (1 laboratory component must be taken): 10-11
  BIOL 525/526 Plant Physiology/Laboratory (3/2)  
  BIOL 612/613 Human Physiology/Laboratory (3/2)
  BIOL 620 Endocrinology
  BIOL 616 Cardiorespiratory Physiology
  BIOL 617 Advanced Topics in Physiology
  BIOL 621 Reproductive Physiology
  BIOL 622 Hormones and Behavior
  BIOL 640 Cellular Neuroscience
  BIOL 642 Neural Systems Physiology
  BIOL 630/631 Animal Physiology/Laboratory (3/2)
Electives selected in consultation with an adviser from the following: 10-11
Criteria for elective units: 1 elective must contain a laboratory component; 1 elective must be chosen from each of the emphases listed below; and additional electives may be selected from the list of physiology core courses and/or either of the emphases listed below.  
Cellular and Molecular Emphasis
BIOL 435 Immunology  
BIOL 351 Experiments in Cell and Molecular Biology (4)
BIOL 357 Molecular Genetics
BIOL 361 Human Genetics
BIOL 382 Developmental Biology
BIOL 615 Molecular Pathophysiology
BIOL 699 Special Study in Biology (1-3)
BIOL 730 Pharmacology
BIOL 865 Advances in Physiology and Behavioral Biology (2)2
CHEM 343 Biochemistry I Laboratory
Ecological, Anatomical, and Evolutionary Emphasis
BIOL 328 Human Anatomy (4)  
BIOL 337 Evolution
BIOL 482 Ecology (4)
BIOL 504 Biology of Fungi (4)
BIOL 505 Comparative Anatomy of Vascular Plants (4)
BIOL 529 Plant Ecology (4)
BIOL 555 Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
BIOL 585 Marine Ecology (4)
BIOL 600 General Animal Behavior (4)
BIOL 606 Behavior and Physiology of Marine Mammals
BIOL 614 Vertebrate Histology (4)
BIOL 699 Special Study in Biology (1-3)
BIOL 865 Physiology and Behavioral Biology Seminar (2)2
  Total upper division requirements 29-31
  Total for major 67-70

NOTE: Any courses taken to fill the physiology requirements may not also be used as elective credit. No more than one BIOL 699 or BIOL 865 may be used as an elective.

Students interested in pursuing graduate study in physiology should take the one-year organic chemistry sequence (CHEM 333/335) and the one-year biochemistry sequence (CHEM 340/341) in place of CHEM 130 and CHEM 349.

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY: CONCENTRATION IN ZOOLOGY

This program provides students with a broad background in animal biology through course work in evolutionary biology, ecology, behavior, anatomy, and physiology of both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Upper division electives may be chosen from one of four emphases: general zoology, vertebrate zoology, entomology, or animal behavior. It is recommended that no matter which of the emphases a student selects, that a background in both vertebrate and invertebrate biology be obtained through selection of appropriate elective courses; e.g., students electing an emphasis in vertebrate zoology should also take course work in invertebrate zoology or entomology. Electives may be selected from those listed below or from alternatives not used in fulfilling the upper division requirements.

See the Undergraduate Degree Programs in Biology section for general information for all biology students.

Lower Division Requirements (34-35 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 130 General Organic Chemistry 3
Units selected from the following: 16-17
  CHEM 215/216 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts/Laboratory (3/2)  
  MATH 226 Calculus I (4)
  MATH 227 Calculus II (4)
  PHYS 111/112 General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1)
  PHYS 121/122 General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1)
  Total lower division requirements 34-35
Upper Division Requirements (32-33 units)
BIOL 337 Evolution 3
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
BIOL 458 Biometry 4
Units selected from the following: 3
  BIOL 630 Animal Physiology  
  BIOL 612 Human Physiology
Units selected from the following: 3-4
  BIOL 350 Cell Biology  
  BIOL 357 Molecular Genetics
  BIOL 380 Comparative Embryology
  BIOL 382 Developmental Biology
  BIOL 453 General Parasitology
  BIOL 600 General Animal Behavior (4)
  BIOL 620 Endocrinology
  BIOL 621 Reproductive Physiology
Units selected from the following: 3-4
  BIOL 482 Ecology (4)  
  BIOL 580 Limnology
  BIOL 582 Biological Oceanography
  BIOL 585 Marine Ecology (4)
Upon advisement, one course focused on the taxonomy or whole organism biology of an invertebrate or vertebrate: 3-4
  BIOL 450 Biology of the Protozoa  
  BIOL 459 Arthropod Biology (4)
  BIOL 460 General Entomology (4)
  BIOL 461 Insect Taxonomy (4)
  BIOL 464 Medical Entomology
  BIOL 475 Herpetology
  BIOL 478 Ornithology (4)
  BIOL 480 Mammalogy (4)
  BIOL 555 Marine Invertebrate Zoology (4)
  BIOL 570 Biology of Fishes (4)
Upon advisement, electives from the alternates not used in fulfilling the requirements listed above or any other upper division biology courses not specifically excluded for major credit, or any graduate biology course: 7-11
  Total upper division requirements 32-33
  Total for major 67

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CLINICAL SCIENCE

The Clinical Science Program is specifically designed for students who intend to enter the career field of Clinical Laboratory Science (Medical Technology). It leads to the Bachelor of Science in Clinical Science. Upon graduation from this four-year academic program, students must then gain admission to a 12-15 month post-baccalaureate program as a clinical science trainee. Graduates of the training program are eligible to take the licensing examination given by the California State Department of Health Services. A professional certification examination is offered by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP) Board of Registry. Successful completion of these steps allows one to serve as a licensed Clinical Laboratory Scientist in a hospital or in other biomedical laboratories which deal with the analysis of human specimens.

Candidates for the B.S. in Clinical Science program should have had high school chemistry and three years of mathematics with a grade of B or better in order to complete the curriculum in normal time. All major course work must be completed with a letter grade (i.e., CR/NC option not applicable to major course work except as noted below for CLEP equivalency credit). In addition, students who complete the group of chemistry courses that are specified below also qualify for the minor degree in chemistry.

Lower Division Requirements (34-35 units) Units
BIOL 230 Introductory Biology I 5
BIOL 240 Introductory Biology II 5
CHEM 115 General Chemistry I: Essential Concepts of Chemistry 5
CHEM 215/216 General Chemistry II: Quantitative Applications of Chemistry Concepts/Laboratory (3/2) 5
CHEM 130 General Organic Chemistry 3
PHYS 111/112 General Physics I/Laboratory (3/1) 4
PHYS 121/122 General Physics II/Laboratory (3/1) 4
Units selected from the following: 3-4
  MATH 226 Calculus I (4)  
  MATH 124 Elementary Statistics
  BIOL 458 Biometry (4)
  Total lower division requirements 34-35
Upper Division Requirements (42-44 units)
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
BIOL 401/402 General Microbiology/Laboratory (3/2) 5
BIOL 430 Medical Microbiology 5
BIOL 435/436 Immunology/Laboratory (3/2) 5
BIOL 453/454 General Parasitology/Laboratory (3/1) 4
BIOL 612 Human Physiology 3
BIOL 625 Hematology 3
CHEM 320 Modern Methods of Quantitative Chemical Analysis 4
CHEM 334 Organic Chemistry I Laboratory 2
CHEM 343 Biochemistry I Laboratory 3
CHEM 349 General Biochemistry 3
Upper division electives from the following: 2-4
  BIOL 420 General Virology  
  BIOL 421 General Virology Laboratory (2)
  BIOL 439 Medical Mycology (4)
  Total upper division requirements 42-44
  Total for major 76-79

MINOR IN GENERAL BIOLOGY

The minor requires a minimum of 23 units in biology, of which at least one-half must be upper division units.

All courses in the minor must be completed with letter grades (CR/NC is not acceptable).

At least one course must be selected, on advisement, from each of the following areas:

CERTIFICATE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

This fourteen- to nineteen-unit program is designed to allow students who are pursuing an undergraduate major in biology or biochemistry to learn the theoretical basis of bioprocessing/fermentation technology. An integral part of the program is a supervised internship to be served in a Bay Area biotechnology company laboratory. Laboratory-oriented students will find an expanding demand for their skills upon completion of the program both in the Bay Area and nationwide.

Students must earn a grade of C or better in all prerequisite courses, and be prepared to provide copies of transcripts demonstrating completion of prerequisites.

Prerequisites Units
BIOL 355 Genetics 3
BIOL 401 General Microbiology 3
BIOL 402 General Microbiology Laboratory 2
BIOL 442 Microbial Physiology 3
BIOL 443 Microbial Physiology Laboratory 2
CHEM 340 Biochemistry I 3
CHEM 341 Biochemistry II 3
  Total prerequisites 19
Required Courses
CHEM 343 Biochemistry I Laboratory 3
BIOL 694 Cooperative Internship in Biology (to be taken in final semester) 3
  Total required courses 6
Elective courses (choose 2 lecture and 2 laboratory courses) 8-13
BIOL 350 Cell Biology and  
  BIOL 351   Experiments in Cell Biology and Genetics (4)
BIOL 357 Molecular Genetics and
  BIOL 358   Experimental Techniques in Molecular Biology (4)
BIOL 411 Environmental and Industrial Microbiology (4)
BIOL 420 General Virology and
  BIOL 421   General Virology Laboratory (2)
BIOL 435   Immunology and
  BIOL 436   Immunology Laboratory (2)
  Total for certificate (excluding prerequisites) 14-19

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY

A student interested in pursuing an advanced degree in any of these programs must meet the general requirements as outlined as well as any additional requirements specified by the major field of study.

For current advising information, including research and funding opportunities, consult the SFSU Biology Department home page at www.sfsu.edu/~biology/.

General Admission Requirements

An applicant must have a baccalaureate degree from an accredited institution and the equivalent major course work for the program area to which application is made. To evaluate an applicant, the Biology Department requires the following: (1) transcripts of all undergraduate work; (2) Graduate Record Examination scores for the general test; (3) a statement of purpose; (4) two or more letters of recommendation, preferably from science faculty. When the Biology Department Office receives this information, the completed file is forwarded to the faculty coordinator of the program area chosen by the applicant. The faculty in the program area evaluate the applicant’s file and recommend admission or denial based on the following criteria:

In addition to inadequacy in any of the above criteria, denial of admission may also be based on:

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Each graduate student is required to demonstrate an acceptable level of written English proficiency at two points. Level One: at the beginning of the first semester's enrollment, the student must pass a proctored essay test administered by the department. Level Two: prior to filing the Graduate Approved Program (GAP), the student must prepare a thesis prospectus, which is read and approved by the student's thesis committee.

Course Requirements

The general requirements of all students are as follows:

On-line course descriptions are available. Most upper division courses offered in the six biology programs may be acceptable for the master's in biology upon approval of the graduate adviser. Students are reminded to check the individual program areas for additional requirements.

Master of Science in Biology: Concentration in Cell and Molecular Biology

The program is designed for students preparing for future graduate work as well as for those wishing to increase their competency in the fields of cell and molecular biology. It emphasizes the study of cells, cell organelles, macromolecules, and the regulation of their production and interaction. As such, it represents an expanding frontier of research that integrates biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, developmental biology, and cell ultrastructure.

See the Master of Science in Biology section above for general information for all biology graduate students.

The specific course requirements shall be determined by the student's committee and are based upon consideration such as goals, interests, and undergraduate preparation. A strong background in chemistry is highly recommended.

Master of Science in Biology: Concentration in Conservation Biology

Students can select areas of specialization within the framework of conservation biology. Every faculty member serves as adviser and major professor for students working on research programs in the faculty member's area of specialization. The graduate program is tailored by advisement to the interests and needs of each student. The areas of emphasis in the conservation biology program are: conservation, evolution, and population biology of rare and endangered species; ecology of invasive species; management and conservation of natural communities; restoration ecology; applied ecology. For additional details, contact the program graduate coordinator.

See the Master of Science in Biology section above for general information for all biology graduate students.

Concentration Requirements Units
Units selected from the following: 12
  BIOL 800 Population Genetics  
  BIOL 812 Systematic Biology
  BIOL 815 Advanced Phylogenetic Analysis
  BIOL 830 Conservation Biology
  BIOL 840 Community Ecology
  BIOL 843 Population Biology

Master of Science in Biology: Concentration in Ecology and Systematic Biology

The program offers the Master of Science in Biology with a Concentration in Ecology and Systematic Biology. Students can select areas of specialization within the framework of ecology, systematics, behavior, and evolutionary biology. Every faculty member serves as adviser and major professor for students working on research programs in the faculty member's area of specialization.

The graduate program is tailored by advisement to the interests of each student. The areas of emphasis in this program are: systematics, evolution, population genetics, and behavior of organisms; community, population, reproductive, behavioral, physiological, and evolutionary ecology; taxonomy, biodiversity, and biogeography. For additional details, contact the program graduate coordinator.

See the Master of Science in Biology section above for general information for all biology graduate students.

Master of Science in Biology: Concentration in Marine Biology

Programs in this area reflect the fact that marine biology is a meeting place for all the biological sciences and some of the physical sciences. Graduate work may be broad or follow specific program areas as ecology, systematics, functional morphology, physiology, and ethology.

The marine program and facilities of San Francisco State University are strongly supported by the Tiburon Research Center and by the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories (MLML), a modern seashore laboratory which is operated cooperatively in a consortium with a number of other state universities. Courses offered at Moss Landing can be found in alphabetical sequence under Marine Science as well as a description of the Master of Science in Marine Science administered by MLML.

Students interested in study in the M.S. in Biology program are urged to observe the general requirements in the Bulletin as well as the specific requirements stated here. For further information contact the program's graduate coordinator. See the Master of Science in Biology section above for general information for all biology graduate students.

The applicant must have the equivalent of the Bachelor of Science in Biology at San Francisco State University, supplemented with additional training in marine biology that indicates the capability to pursue graduate study.

Master of Science in Biology: Concentration in Microbiology

The study of microbes and viruses is central to the fields of molecular biology, pathogenesis, immunity, and biotechnology; they are also important in the study of the biochemical and genetic properties of cells and organisms, as well as their ecology. The M.S. program provides course work and research opportunities for students who have career goals in research or industry or who wish to obtain a Ph.D. after completing the master's degree.

Students interested in the M.S. in Biomedical Laboratory Science should contact the graduate coordinator in the Center for Biomedical Laboratory Science (CBLS).

Admission to Program

Applicants must possess a baccalaureate degree in biological or physical sciences, with at least two laboratory courses in microbiology, one year of general physics, one year of general chemistry, and one year of organic chemistry. Acceptance to fully classified status will be determined by departmental evaluation.

See the Master of Science in Biology section above for general information for all biology graduate students.

The following additional requirements are to be included.

A minimum of 16 units of credit in graduate level courses which must include: Units
BIOL 884 Seminar: Microbiology 1
BIOL 864 Advanced Microbiology 2
At least 1 graduate laboratory course in microbiology chosen from BIOL 741, 744, and 755 3-4

Master of Science in Biology: Concentration in Physiology and Behavioral Biology

The program offers the Master of Science in Biology with a Concentration in Physiology and Behavioral Biology. The program is flexible and, with a program adviser, the student may plan a program to fit his/her particular interests, such as preparation for employment or a Ph.D. program when the Master of Science is required.

Admission to Program

In addition to the baccalaureate degree, or the equivalent, in biological sciences, the program requires that the applicant have the equivalent of one semester of upper division physiology with laboratory, two semesters of college physics, two semesters of general college chemistry, and one semester of organic chemistry.

See the Master of Science in Biology section above for general information for all biology graduate students.

MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BIOMEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE

Graduate Advisers—Blackwood, Chen, Romeo, Smith-Beckerman

Admission to Program

Students must have a Bachelor of Science in Biology, Clinical Science, Chemistry/Biochemistry, or the equivalent. Individuals with related degrees who are working in biomedical laboratory science research or industry may be admitted. A detailed description of the program is available in the Policies and Procedures Manual at the CBLS office.

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Level One: must be completed by passing the Graduate Essay Test (GET). The GET is administered by the university Testing Center in the month before the start of each semester. Students must pass GET or the assigned English course(s) by the end of their second semester. Level Two: requires approval of a written research proposal by the faculty committee that supervises the student's research.

On-line course descriptions are available.

Program Units
BIOM 801 Biomedical Laboratory Science Literature 1
BIOM 802 Biomedical Laboratory Science Research Design 1
BIOM 703 Biostatistics and Quality Control 2
Foundation graduate lecture course on advisement 2-3
Graduate laboratory course on advisement 2-4
BIOM 880 Reading and Presenting Clinical Science Papers (2) or 1-2
  BIOM 881, 882, 883, 884, 885, 886, 887 (1 unit each)
  Total for core 9-13
Plan A
Upper division or graduate elective courses selected with the approval of student's advisory committee 14-17
BIOM 896 Directed Reading 1
BIOM 897 Research 0-1
BIOM 895 Research Project
 and Preliminary Oral Examination
 and Oral Comprehensive Examination
3
Minimum total 31
Plan B
Upper division or graduate elective courses selected with the approval of student's advisory committee 9-13
BIOM 896 Directed Reading 1
BIOM 897 Research 2-6
BIOM 898 Master's Thesis
 and Preliminary Oral Examination
 and Oral Defense of Thesis
3
Minimum total 31

An oral examination or thesis defense may be repeated once at the discretion of the committee.

CERTIFICATE IN GENETIC ENGINEERING

This thirteen-unit program is designed to allow students who have completed an undergraduate degree in basic science with a molecular biological emphasis to learn the techniques and principles of genetic engineering by both lecture and laboratory/project experience, balanced with an integrated presentation of both ethical concerns and safety considerations. This program will further prepare students to make transitions into careers in the area of biotechnology or to enter advanced degree programs. Graduate students intending to secure both a master's degree and the certificate may pursue these objectives concurrently with consultation and approval of the graduate degree faculty adviser. All course work used to satisfy the requirements must be taken on an A–F graded basis and must be completed with a minimum grade point average of 3.0. Due to laboratory space limitations, total enrollment in the program will be restricted.

Before being considered for acceptance to this certificate program, the student must first be eligible in accordance with all university requirements as outlined in the section Certificate Programs. This same section also includes university program guidelines and procedures to be followed in filing for the award of the certificate when it is completed.

Admission to the Program

To be admitted to the program an applicant must have completed a baccalaureate degree and must be admitted to classified graduate standing in the university in accordance with standard admissions requirements and procedures. In addition to application procedures specified by the university, applicants must:

  1. Submit to the certificate coordinator a copy of transcripts used for the baccalaureate degree, transcripts of other relevant study, and evidence of graduate standing in the university. The following courses from San Francisco State University, or their equivalents, are prerequisites and must be completed before the program is initiated.
    1. BIOL 401/402, General Microbiology and Laboratory, or
      BIOL 350/351, Cell Biology and Experiments in Cell Biology and Genetics
    2. BIOL 355, Genetics
    3. BIOL 357, Molecular Genetics
    4. CHEM 340 and 341, Biochemistry I and II, and
      CHEM 343, Biochemistry I Laboratory
  2. Submit to the coordinator a letter of application for admission to the certificate program. This letter should include a description of any relevant experience not evident in the transcripts.
  3. Make arrangements to have a minimum of two letters of recommendation sent to the coordinator.
  4. In addition to the items listed above, the application must include a letter indicating admission to classified status in the graduate program.
  5. Applications should be addressed to Genetic Engineering Coordinator, Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132.

The program consists of a series of laboratory and lecture courses designed to provide competence in recombinant DNA methodology and allied areas.

Program Units
BIOL 743 Recombinant DNA Techniques 3
BIOL 744 Experiments in Genetic Engineering 4
Minimum units from the following: 6
  BIOL 358 Experimental Techniques in Molecular Biology (4)  
  BIOL 420/421 General Virology and Laboratory (3/2)
  Or other laboratory courses as approved by the genetic engineering coordinator
  Minimum total 13

Written English Proficiency Requirement

Students must demonstrate an appropriate level of writing competency. This shall be accomplished by satisfactory preparation of written laboratory reports in BIOL 744 which demonstrate competency in scientific report writing and analysis of data. The instructor of this course shall determine whether reports have met those criteria and so specify on the Certificate Approved Program form. If the student's work is unsatisfactory, additional course work directed to achieving English competency may be specified after consultation with the coordinator.


Footnotes

  1. Students who plan to study for a Ph.D. should complete at least two semesters of calculus and one semester of physical chemistry.
  2. Graduate seminar courses may be taken by qualified seniors with consent of instructor.


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