Some HIV/AIDs Statistics
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome):
HIV in the United States: At A Glance
- By Risk Group
- By Race/Ethnicity
- Women and HIV
- The Numbers
- HIV & AIDS Diagnoses and Deaths
- Prevention Challenges
- More than 1.1 million people in the United States are living with HIV infection, and almost 1 in 5 (18.1%) are unaware of their infection.
- Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM*), particularly young black/African American MSM, are most seriously affected by HIV.
- By race, blacks/African Americans face the most severe burden of HIV.
CDC estimates that 1,148,200 persons aged 13 years and older are living with HIV infection, including 207,600 (18.1%) who are unaware of their infection1. Over the past decade, the number of people living with HIV has increased, while the annual number of new HIV infections has remained relatively stable. Still, the pace of new infections continues at far too high a level—particularly among certain groups.
HIV Incidence (new infections): The estimated incidence of HIV has remained stable overall in recent years, at about 50,000 new HIV infections per year.2 Within the overall estimates, however, some groups are affected more than others. MSM continue to bear the greatest burden of HIV infection, and among races/ethnicities, African Americans continue to be disproportionately affected.
HIV Diagnoses (new diagnoses, regardless of when infection occurred): In 2010, an estimated 47,129 people were diagnosed with HIV infection in the 46 states with confidential name-based HIV infection reporting since at least January 2007. In that same year, an estimated 33,015 people were diagnosed with AIDS. Since the epidemic began, an estimated 1,129,127 people in the United States have been diagnosed with AIDS.3
Deaths: An estimated 17,774 people with an AIDS diagnosis died in 2009, and nearly 619,400 people in the United States with an AIDS diagnosis have died since the epidemic began.3 The deaths of persons with an AIDS diagnosis can be due to any cause—that is, the death may or may not be related to AIDS.
By Risk Group
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) of all races and ethnicities remain the population most profoundly affected by HIV.
- In 2010, the estimated number of new HIV infections among MSM was 29,800, a significant 12% increase from the 26,700 new infections among MSM in 2008.2
- Although MSM represent about 4% of the male population in the United States,4 in 2010, MSM accounted for 78% of new HIV infections among males and 63% of all new infections.2 MSM accounted for 52% of all people living with HIV infection in 2009, the most recent year these data are available.1
- In 2010, white MSM continued to account for the largest number of new HIV infections (11,200), by transmission category, followed closely by black MSM (10,600).2
- The estimated number of new HIV infections was greatest among MSM in the youngest age group. In 2010, the greatest number of new HIV infections (4,800) among MSM occurred in young black/African American MSM aged 13–24. Young black MSM accounted for 45% of new HIV infections among black MSM and 55% of new HIV infections among young MSM overall.2
- Since the epidemic began, almost 300,000 MSM with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including an estimated 6,863 in 2009.3
- Heterosexuals accounted for 25% of estimated new HIV infections in 2010 and 27% of people living with HIV infection in 2009.1, 2
- Since the epidemic began, more than 80,000 persons with an AIDS diagnosis, infected through heterosexual sex, have died, including an estimated 4,434 in 2009.3
- New HIV infections among women are primarily attributed to heterosexual contact (84% in 2010) or injection drug use (16% in 2010). Women accounted for 20% of estimated new HIV infections in 2010 and 24% of those living with HIV infection in 2009.1, 2 The 9,500 new infections among women in 2010 reflect a significant 21% decrease from the 12,000 new infections that occurred among this group in 2008.2
- Injection drug users represented 8% of new HIV infections in 2010 and 16% of those living with HIV in 2009.1, 2
- Since the epidemic began, more than 175,000 injection drug users with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including an estimated 4,759 in 2009.
- Blacks represent approximately 14% of the U.S. population, but accounted for an estimated 44% of new HIV infections in 2010. They also accounted for 44% of people living with HIV infection in 2009.
- Since the epidemic began, more than 250,000 blacks with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including 8,782 in 2009
- Unless the course of the epidemic changes, at some point in their lifetime, an estimated 1 in 16 black men and 1 in 32 black women will be diagnosed with HIV infection.
- Hispanics/Latinos represented 16% of the population but accounted for 21% of new HIV infections in 2010.2 Hispanics/Latinos accounted for 19% of people living with HIV infection in 2009.1
- Disparities persist in the estimated rate of new HIV infections in Hispanics/Latinos. In 2010, the rate of new HIV infections for Latino males was 2.9 times that for white males, and the rate of new infections for Latinas was 4.2 times that for white females.2
- Since the epidemic began, more than an estimated 95,000 Hispanics/Latinos with an AIDS diagnosis have died, including 2,853 in 2009.3
- An estimated 417 Asians and Pacific Islanders were given a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS, representing 1.1% of the 37,331 cases diagnosed that year .
- Of the 475,220 persons living with HIV/AIDS, 2,996 (0.6%) were Asians and Pacific Islanders .
- Of those given a diagnosis, 78% were men, 21% were women, and 1% were children (under 13 years of age) .
- The numbers of HIV/AIDS cases may be larger than reported because of underreporting or misclassification of Asians and Pacific Islanders.
- In 2009, there were an estimated 11,200 new HIV infections among women in the United States. That year, women comprised 51% of the US population and 23% of those newly infected with HIV.
- Of the total number of new HIV infections in US women in 2009, 57% occurred in blacks, 21% were in whites, and 16% were in Hispanics/Latinas.
- In 2009, the rate of new HIV infections among black women was 15 times that of white women, and over 3 times the rate among Hispanic/Latina women.
- Estimates of New HIV Infections, by Race/Ethnicity, Risk Group, and Gender for the Most Affected US Populations, 2009
- At some point in her lifetime, 1 in 139 women will be diagnosed with HIV infection. Black and Hispanic/Latina women are at increased risk of being diagnosed with HIV infection (1 in 32 black women and 1 in 106 Hispanic/Latina women will be diagnosed with HIV, compared with 1 in 182 Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander women; 1 in 217 American Indian/Alaska Native women; and 1 in 526 for both white and Asian women).
- From 2006 through 2009, estimated diagnoses of HIV infection among women decreased from 10,851 to 9,973. It is unknown whether this decrease is due to an actual decrease in new HIV infections (incidence) or whether the decrease reflects HIV testing trends.
- Women accounted for more than 25% of the estimated 34,247 AIDS diagnoses in 2009 and represent nearly 20% of cumulative AIDS diagnoses (including children) in the United States to date. There were 8,647 AIDS diagnoses among women in 2009 compared with 9,639 AIDS diagnoses among women in 2006.
- For women living with a diagnosis of HIV infection, the most common methods of transmission were high-risk heterosexual contact6 and injection drug use.
- In 2008, 4,796 (28%) of the estimated 17,374 persons with a diagnosis of HIV infection who died in the 40 states and 5 US dependent areas were women. Deaths attributed to HIV among women of color are disproportionately high: from 2000–2007, HIV infection was among the top 10 leading causes of death for black females aged 10–54 and Hispanic/Latina females aged 15–54.
- Most women are infected with HIV through heterosexual sex. Some women become infected because they may be unaware of a male partner’s risk factors for HIV infection or have a lack of HIV knowledge and lower perception of risk. Relationship dynamics also play a role. For example, some women may not insist on condom use because they fear that their partner will physically abuse or leave them.
- Both unprotected vaginal and anal sex pose a risk for HIV transmission. Unprotected anal sex presents an even greater risk for HIV transmission for women than unprotected vaginal sex.
- Women who have experienced sexual abuse may be more likely than women with no abuse history to use drugs as a coping mechanism, have difficulty refusing unwanted sex, exchange sex for drugs, or engage in high-risk sexual activities.
- Injection drug and other substance use increase HIV risk through sharing injection equipment contaminated with HIV or engaging in high-risk behaviors, such as unprotected sex, when under the influence of drugs or alcohol.
- The presence of some sexually transmitted diseases greatly increases the likelihood of acquiring or transmitting HIV. Rates of gonorrhea and syphilis are higher among women of color than among white women.
- Socioeconomic issues associated with poverty, including limited access to high-quality health care; the exchange of sex for drugs, money, or to meet other needs; and higher levels of substance use can directly or indirectly increase HIV risk factors.
Heterosexuals and Injection Drug Users also continue to be affected by HIV.
Blacks/African Americans continue to experience the most severe burden of HIV, compared with other races and ethnicities.
Hispanics/Latinos are also disproportionately affected by HIV.
*For assessing disease risk, the term MSM is often used instead of gay, homosexual, or bisexual because it refers to a risk behavior, rather than an identity that may or may not be tied to a behavior.
In recent years, the number of AIDS diagnoses among Asians and Pacific Islanders has increased steadily. Although Asians and Pacific Islanders account for approximately 1% of the total number of HIV/AIDS cases in the 33 states with long-term, confidential name-based HIV reporting, the Asian and Pacific Islander population in the United States is growing .
(Asians and Pacific Islanders data based on data from the 33 states with long-term, confidential name-based HIV reportin in 2005 )
1 CDC. Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 U.S. dependent areas—2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2012;17(No. 3, part A). http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/surveillance/resources/reports/2010supp_vol17no3/index.htm. Published June 2012.
2 CDC. Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2007–2010. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2012;17(No. 4). http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/#supplemental. Published December 2012.
3 CDC. HIV Surveillance Report, 2010; vol. 22. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/. Published March 2012.
4 Purcell D, Johnson CH, Lansky A, et al. Estimating the population size of men who have sex with men in the United States to obtain HIV and syphilis rates. Open AIDS Journal 2012;6(Suppl 1: M6):98-107. http://www.benthamscience.com/open/toaidj/articles/V006/SI0065TOAIDJ/98TOAIDJ.pdf.
5 CDC. Estimated lifetime risk for diagnosis of HIV infection among Hispanics/Latinos—37 states and Puerto Rico, 2007. MMWR 2010;59(40);1297-1301. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm5940.pdf.
6 CDC. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2005. Vol. 17. Rev ed. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC: 2007:1–46. Accessed June 28, 2007.http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/API.htm
Last Modified: December 19, 2012
Last Reviewed: December 19, 2012
Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention
Women and HIV
According to 2009 HIV surveillance data, women1 represented 24% of all diagnoses of HIV infection among United States (US) adults and adolescents in 40 states with long-established, confidential name-based reporting. In 2008, an estimated 25% of adults and adolescents living with HIV infection were female. Black and Latina women are disproportionately affected at all stages of HIV infection compared with women of other races/ethnicities.
The Numbers: The New HIV Infections
Source: Prejean J, et al. Estimated HIV incidence in the United States, 2006-2009. PLoS One 2001;6(8):1-13.
HIV & AIDS Diagnoses and Deaths
Like other affected populations, women face a number of risk factors that may contribute to their risk for HIV infection.
1 Unless otherwise noted, this fact sheet defines women as adult and adolescent females aged 13 and older.
2 New HIV infections refers to HIV incidence, or the number of people that are newly infected with HIV.
3 HIV and AIDS diagnoses indicates when a person is diagnosed with HIV infection or AIDS but does not indicate when the person was infected.
4 The term men who have sex with men (MSM) is used in CDC surveillance systems. It indicates the behaviors that transmit HIV infection, rather than how individuals self-identify in terms of their sexuality.
5 IDU is an acronym for injection drug user.
6 Heterosexual contact with a person known to have, or to be at high risk for, HIV infection.
Last Modified: August 10, 2011
Last Reviewed: August 10, 2011
Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention
National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention